30 November 2010

The Tafsir of Surah Maryam


The Tafsir of Surah Maryam 

from http://www.tafsir.com

Which was revealed in Makkah
Muhammad bin Ishaq recorded a Hadith of Umm Salamah in his Sirah, and Ahmad bin Hanbal recorded from Ibn Mas`ud, the story of the Hijrah (migration) to Ethiopia from Makkah. The narration mentions that Ja`far bin Abi Talib recited the first part of this Surah to An-Najashi and his companions.
[بِسْمِ اللَّهِ الرَّحْمَـنِ الرَّحِيمِ ]
In the Name of Allah, the Most Gracious, the Most Merciful.
[كهيعص - ذِكْرُ رَحْمَتِ رَبِّكَ عَبْدَهُ زَكَرِيَّآ - إِذْ نَادَى رَبَّهُ نِدَآءً خَفِيّاً - قَالَ رَبِّ إِنِّى وَهَنَ الْعَظْمُ مِنِّى وَاشْتَعَلَ الرَّأْسُ شَيْباً وَلَمْ أَكُنْ بِدُعَآئِكَ رَبِّ شَقِيّاً - وَإِنِّي خِفْتُ الْمَوَالِىَ مِن وَرَآئِى وَكَانَتِ امْرَأَتِى عَاقِرًا فَهَبْ لِى مِن لَّدُنْكَ وَلِيّاً - يَرِثُنِى وَيَرِثُ مِنْ ءَالِ يَعْقُوبَ وَاجْعَلْهُ رَبِّ رَضِيّاً ]
(1. Kaf Ha Ya `Ain Sad.) (2. A reminder of the mercy of your Lord to His servant Zakariyya.) (3. When he called his Lord [with] a call in secret.) (4. He said: "My Lord! Indeed my bones have grown feeble, and gray hair has Ashta`al on my head, and I have never been unblessed in my invocation to You, O my Lord!'') (5. "And verily, I fear Mawali after me, and my wife is barren. So give me from Yourself an heir.'') (6. "Who shall inherit me, and inherit (also) the posterity of Ya`qub. And make him, my Lord, one with whom You are well-pleased!'')
The Story of Zakariyya and His Supplication for a Son The discussion about the separate letters has already preceded at the beginning of Surat Al-Baqarah.
Concerning Allah's statement,
[ذِكْرُ رَحْمَتِ رَبِّكَ]
(A reminder of the mercy of your Lord) This means that this is a reminder of Allah's mercy upon His servant Zakariyya. Yahya bin Ya`mar recited it, (ذَكَّرَ رَحْمَةَ رَبكَ عبدَه زكريا) "He has reminded of your Lord's mercy to His servant Zakariyya.'' The word Zakariyya in the Ayah has been recited with elongation and also shortened. Both recitations are well-known. He was a great Prophet from the Prophets of the Children of Israel. In Sahih Al-Bukhari, it is recorded [that the Prophet said about Zakariyya] that He was a carpenter who used to eat from what he earned with his own hand through carpentry. Concerning Allah's statement,
[إِذْ نَادَى رَبَّهُ نِدَآءً خَفِيّاً ]
(When he called his Lord [with] a call in secret.) He only made his supplication secretly because it is more beloved to Allah. This is similar to what Qatadah said concerning this Ayah,
[إِذْ نَادَى رَبَّهُ نِدَآءً خَفِيّاً ]
(When he called out his Lord [with] a call in secret. ) "Verily, Allah knows the pious heart and he hears the hidden voice.''
[قَالَ رَبِّ إِنِّى وَهَنَ الْعَظْمُ مِنِّى]
(He said: "My Lord! Indeed my bones have grown feeble...'') meaning, "I have become weak and feeble in strength.''
[وَاشْتَعَلَ الرَّأْسُ شَيْباً]
(and gray hair has Ashta`al on my head,) means the gray hair has burned into the black hair. The intent is to inform of weakness and old age, and its external and internal traces. Concerning Allah's statement,
[وَلَمْ أَكُنْ بِدُعَآئِكَ رَبِّ شَقِيّاً]
(and I have never been unblessed in my invocation to You, O my Lord!) This means, "I have not experienced from You except that You would respond to my supplication and that You would never refuse me in whatever I ask of You.'' Concerning His statement,
[وَإِنِّي خِفْتُ الْمَوَالِىَ مِن وَرَآئِى]
(And verily, I fear Mawali after me,) Mujahid, Qatadah and As-Suddi, all said, "In saying the word Mawali, he (Zakariyya) meant his succeeding relatives.'' The reason for his fear was that he was afraid that the generation that would succeed him would be a wicked generation. Thus, he asked Allah for a son who would be a Prophet after him, who would guide them with his prophethood and that which was revealed to him. In response to this I would like to point out that he was not afraid of them inheriting his wealth. For a Prophet is too great in status, and too lofty in esteem to become remorseful over his wealth in this fashion. A Prophet would not disdain to leave his wealth to his successive relatives, and thus ask to have a son who would receive his inheritance instead of them. This is one angle of argument. The second argument is that Allah did not mention that he (Zakariyya) was wealthy. On the contrary, he was a carpenter who ate from the earnings of his own hand. This type of person usually does not have a mass of wealth. Amassing wealth is not something normal for Prophets, for verily, they are the most abstentious in matters of this worldly life. The third argument is that it is confirmed in the Two Sahihs, in more than one narration, that the Messenger of Allah said,
«لَا نُورَثُ، مَا تَرَكْنَا فَهُوَ صَدَقَة»
(We (the Prophets) do not leave behind inheritance (of wealth). Whatever we leave behind, then it is charity.) In a narration recorded by At-Tirmidhi with an authentic chain of narrations, he said,
«نَحْنُ مَعْشَرَ الْأَنْبِيَاءِ لَا نُورَث»
(We, Prophets do not leave behind inheritance (of wealth).) Therefore, the meaning in these Hadiths restricts the meaning of Zakariyya's statement,
[فَهَبْ لِى مِن لَّدُنْكَ وَلِيّاًيَرِثُنِى]
(So give me from yourself an heir. Who shall inherit me,) inheritance of prophethood. For this reason Allah said,
[وَيَرِثُ مِنْ ءَالِ يَعْقُوبَ]
(and inherit (also) the posterity of Ya`qub.) This is similar to Allah's statement,
[وَوَرِثَ سُلَيْمَـنُ دَاوُودَ]
(And Sulayman inherited from Dawud.)[27:16] This means that he inherited prophethood from him. If this had meant wealth, he would not have been singled with it among his other brothers. There also would have been no important benefit in mentioning it if it was referring to wealth. It is already well-known and established in all of the previous laws and divinely revealed creeds, that the son inherits the wealth of his father. Therefore, if this was not referring to a specific type of inheritance, then Allah would not have mentioned it. All of this is supported and affirmed by what is in the authentic Hadith:
«نَحْنُ مَعَاشِرَ الْأَنْبِيَاءِ لَا نُورَثُ، مَا تَرَكْنَا فَهُوَ صَدَقَة»
(We Prophets do not leave behind any inheritance (of wealth). Whatever we leave behind, then it is charity.) Mujahid said concerning his statement,
[يَرِثُنِى وَيَرِثُ مِنْ ءَالِ يَعْقُوبَ]
(Who shall inherit me, and inherit (also) the posterity of Ya'qub.) [19:6] "His inheritance was knowledge, and Zakariyya was one of the descendants of Ya`qub." Hushaym said, "Isma'il bin Abi Khalid informed us that Abu Salih commented about the Ayah:
[يَرِثُنِى وَيَرِثُ مِنْ ءَالِ يَعْقُوبَ]
(who shall inherit me, and inherit (also) the posterity of Ya`qub.) "He would be a Prophet like his forefathers were Prophets.'' Allah's statement,
[وَاجْعَلْهُ رَبِّ رَضِيّاً]
(and make him, my Lord, one with whom You are well-pleased!) means "Make him pleasing to You (Allah) and your creation. Love him and make him beloved to your creatures, in both his religion and his character.''
[يزَكَرِيَّآ إِنَّا نُبَشِّرُكَ بِغُلَـمٍ اسْمُهُ يَحْيَى لَمْ نَجْعَل لَّهُ مِن قَبْلُ سَمِيّاً ]
(7. (Allah said:) "O Zakariyya! Verily, We give you the good news of a son, whose name will be Yahya. We have given that name to none before (him).'')
The acceptance of His Supplication
This statement implies what is not mentioned, that his supplication was answered. It was said to him,
[يزَكَرِيَّآ إِنَّا نُبَشِّرُكَ بِغُلَـمٍ اسْمُهُ يَحْيَى]
((Allah said:) "O Zakariyya! Verily, We give you the glad tidings of a son, whose name will be Yahya...'') Similarly Allah, the Exalted, said;
[هُنَالِكَ دَعَا زَكَرِيَّا رَبَّهُ قَالَ رَبِّ هَبْ لِى مِن لَّدُنْكَ ذُرِّيَّةً طَيِّبَةً إِنَّكَ سَمِيعُ الدُّعَآءِ - فَنَادَتْهُ الْمَلَـئِكَةُ وَهُوَ قَائِمٌ يُصَلِّى فِى الْمِحْرَابِ أَنَّ اللَّهَ يُبَشِّرُكَ بِيَحْيَـى مُصَدِّقاً بِكَلِمَةٍ مِّنَ اللَّهِ وَسَيِّدًا وَحَصُورًا وَنَبِيًّا مِّنَ الصَّـلِحِينَ ]
(At that time Zakariyya invoked his Lord, saying: "O my Lord! Grant me from You, a good offspring. You are indeed the All-Hearer of invocation.'' Then the angels called him, while he was standing in prayer in the Mihrab, (saying): "Allah gives you glad tidings of Yahya, confirming (believing in) the word from Allah, noble, keeping away from sexual relations with women, a Prophet, from among the righteous.'')[3:38-39] Allah said,
[لَمْ نَجْعَل لَّهُ مِن قَبْلُ سَمِيّاً]
(We have given that name to none before (him).) Qatadah, Ibn Jurayj and Ibn Zayd said, "This means that no one had this name before him.'' Ibn Jarir preferred this interpretation, may Allah have mercy upon him.
[قَالَ رَبِّ أَنَّى يَكُونُ لِى غُلَـمٌ وَكَانَتِ امْرَأَتِى عَاقِراً وَقَدْ بَلَغْتُ مِنَ الْكِبَرِ عِتِيّاً - قَالَ كَذَلِكَ قَالَ رَبُّكَ هُوَ عَلَىَّ هَيِّنٌ وَقَدْ خَلَقْتُكَ مِن قَبْلُ وَلَمْ تَكُ شَيْئاً ]
(8. He said: "My Lord! How can I have a son, when my wife is barren, and I have reached the extreme old age.'') (9. He said: "Thus your Lord says: `It is easy for Me. Certainly I have created you before, when you had been nothing!''')[19:8-9]
His amazement after the acceptance of His Supplication
Zakariyya was amazed when his supplication was answered and he was given the good news of a son. He became extremely overjoyed and asked how this child would be born to him, and in what manner he would come. This was particularly amazing because his wife was an old woman who was barren and had not given birth to any children in her entire life. Even Zakariyya himself had become old and advanced in years, his bones had become feeble and thin, and he had no potent semen or vigor for sexual intercourse. The Answer of the Angel
[قَالَ]
(He said:) That is, the angel, in his response to Zakariyya and his was amazement.
[كَذَلِكَ قَالَ رَبُّكَ هُوَ عَلَىَّ هَيِّنٌ]
("Thus says your Lord: `It is easy for Me...''') Meaning the birth of the son will be from you and from this wife of yours and not from any other (woman).
[هَيِّنٌ]
(easy) Meaning, it is simple and easy for Allah to do. Then he (the angel) mentioned to him that which is more amazing than what he was asking about. The angel said that the Lord said,
[وَقَدْ خَلَقْتُكَ مِن قَبْلُ وَلَمْ تَكُ شَيْئاً]
(Certainly I have created you before, when you had been nothing!) This is similar to Allah's statement,
[هَلْ أَتَى عَلَى الإِنسَـنِ حِينٌ مِّنَ الدَّهْرِ لَمْ يَكُن شَيْئاً مَّذْكُوراً ]
(Has there not been over man a period of time, when he was not a thing worth mentioning) [76:1]
[قَالَ رَبِّ اجْعَل لِى ءَايَةً قَالَ ءَايَتُكَ أَلاَّ تُكَلِّمَ النَّاسَ ثَلَـثَ لَيَالٍ سَوِيّاً - فَخَرَجَ عَلَى قَوْمِهِ مِنَ الْمِحْرَابِ فَأَوْحَى إِلَيْهِمْ أَن سَبِّحُواْ بُكْرَةً وَعَشِيّاً ]
(10. He [Zakariyya] said: "My Lord! Appoint for me a sign.'' He said: "Your sign is that you shall not speak unto mankind for three nights, though having no bodily defect.'') (11. Then he came out to his people from the Mihrab and he indicated to them by signs to glorify [Allah] in the morning and in the afternoon.)
The Sign of the Pregnancy
Allah, the Exalted, informed about Zakariyya that he said,
[قَالَ رَبِّ اجْعَل لِّى ءَايَةً]
(He (Zakariyya) said: "My Lord! Appoint for me a sign.'') "Give me a sign and a proof of the existence of that which You have promised me, so that my soul will be at rest and my heart will be at ease with Your promise.'' Similarly Ibrahim said,
[رَبِّ أَرِنِى كَيْفَ تُحْىِ الْمَوْتَى قَالَ أَوَلَمْ تُؤْمِن قَالَ بَلَى وَلَـكِن لِّيَطْمَئِنَّ قَلْبِى]
(My Lord! Show me how You give life to the dead. He (Allah) said: "Do you not believe'' He said: "Yes (I believe), but to put my heart at ease.'')[2:260] Then Allah says,
[قَالَ ءَايَتُكَ]
(He said: "Your sign is...'') meaning, "Your sign will be...''
[أَلاَّ تُكَلِّمَ النَّاسَ ثَلَـثَ لَيَالٍ سَوِيّاً]
(that you shall not speak unto mankind for three nights, though having no bodily defect.) Meaning, `your tongue will be prevented from speaking for three nights while you are healthy and fit, without any sickness or illness.' Ibn `Abbas, Mujahid, `Ikrimah, Wahb, As-Suddi, Qatadah and others said, "His tongue was arrested without any sickness or illness.'' `Abdur-Rahman bin Zayd bin Aslam said, "He used to recite and glorify Allah, but he was not able to speak to his people except by gestures. '' Al-`Awfi reported that Ibn `Abbas said,
[ثَلَـثَ لَيَالٍ سَوِيّاً]
(three nights, though having no bodily defect.) "The nights were consecutive.'' However, the first statement that is reported from him and the majority is more correct. This Ayah is similar to what Allah, the Exalted, said in Surah Al `Imran,
[قَالَ رَبِّ اجْعَل لِّى ءَايَةً قَالَ ءَايَتُكَ أَلاَّ تُكَلِّمَ النَّاسَ ثَلَـثَةَ أَيَّامٍ إِلاَّ رَمْزًا وَاذْكُر رَّبَّكَ كَثِيرًا وَسَبِّحْ بِالْعَشِىِّ وَالإِبْكَـرِ ]
(He said: "O my Lord! Make a sign for me.'' (Allah) said "Your sign is that you shall not speak to mankind for three days except with signals. And remember your Lord much, and glorify (Him) in the afternoon and in the morning.)[3:41] This is a proof that he did not speak to his people for these three nights and their days as well.
[إِلاَّ رَمْزًا]
(except with signals.) Meaning, with bodily gestures, this is why Allah says in this noble Ayah,
[فَخَرَجَ عَلَى قَوْمِهِ مِنَ الْمِحْرَابِ]
(Then he came out to his people from the Mihrab) referring to the place where he was given the good news of the child.
[فَأَوْحَى إِلَيْهِمْ]
(he indicated to them by signs) Meaning he made a gesture to them that was subtle and swift.
[أَن سَبِّحُواْ بُكْرَةً وَعَشِيّاً]
(to glorify [Allah] in the morning and in the afternoon.) That they should be agreeable to what he was commanded to do during these three days, to increase in his deeds and gratitude to Allah for what He had given him. Mujahid said,
[فَأَوْحَى إِلَيْهِمْ]
(he indicated to them by signs) "He made a gesture.'' Wahb and Qatadah said the same.
[ييَحْيَى خُذِ الْكِتَـبَ بِقُوَّةٍ وَآتَيْنَاهُ الْحُكْمَ صَبِيّاً - وَحَنَانًا مِّن لَّدُنَّا وَزَكَوةً وَكَانَ تَقِيًّا - وَبَرًّا بِوَلِدَيْهِ وَلَمْ يَكُن جَبَّاراً عَصِيّاً - وَسَلَـمٌ عَلَيْهِ يَوْمَ وُلِدَ وَيَوْمَ يَمُوتُ وَيَوْمَ يُبْعَثُ حَياً ]
(12. (It was said to his son): "O Yahya! Hold fast to the Scripture.'' And We gave him wisdom while yet a child.) (13. And Hananan from Us, and Zakatan, and he was pious,) (14. And dutiful to his parents, and he was not arrogant or disobedient.) (15. And Salam (peace) be on him the day he was born, and the day he dies, and the day he will be raised up to life (again)!)
The Birth of the Boy and His Characteristics
This also implies what is not mentioned, that this promised boy was born and he was Yahya. There is also the implication that Allah taught him the Book, the Tawrah which they used to study among themselves. The Prophets who were sent to the Jews used to rule according to the Tawrah, as did the scholars and rabbis among them. He was still young in age when Allah gave him this knowledge. This is the reason that Allah mentioned it. Because of how Allah favored him and his parents, He says,
[ييَحْيَى خُذِ الْكِتَـبَ بِقُوَّةٍ]
(O Yahya! Hold fast to the Scripture [the Tawrah].) Means, "Learn the Book with strength.'' In other words, learn it well, with zeal and studious effort.
[وَآتَيْنَاهُ الْحُكْمَ صَبِيّاً]
(And We gave him wisdom while yet a child.) This means he was given understanding, knowledge, fortitude, diligence and zeal for good and the pursuit of good. He was blessed with these characteristics even though he was young. Allah said,
[وَحَنَانًا مِّن لَّدُنَّا]
(And (made him) Hananan from Us,) [19:13] Ali bin Abi Talhah reported that Ibn `Abbas said,
[وَحَنَانًا مِّن لَّدُنَّا]
(And Hananan from Us, ) "This means mercy from Us.'' `Ikrimah, Qatadah and Ad-Dahhak all said the same. Ad-Dahhak added, "Mercy that no one would be able to give except Us.'' Qatadah added, "With it, Allah had mercy upon Zakariyya.'' Mujahid said,
[وَحَنَانًا مِّن لَّدُنَّا]
(And Hananan from Us,) "This was gentleness from His Lord upon him.'' The apparent meaning is that Allah's statement Hananan (affection, compassion) is directly related to His statement,
[وَآتَيْنَاهُ الْحُكْمَ صَبِيّاً]
(and We gave him wisdom while yet a child.) meaning, "We gave him wisdom, compassion and purity.'' This means that he was a compassionate man, who was righteous. Hanan means the love for affection and tenderness (towards others). Concerning Allah's statement,
[وَزَكَوةً]
(and Zakatan,) This is related to His statement,
[وَحَنَانًا]
(And Hananan) The word Zakah means purity from filth, wickedness and sins. Qatadah said, "The word Zakah means the righteous deed.'' Ad-Dahhak and Ibn Jurayj both said, "The righteous deed is the pure (Zakah) deed.'' Al-`Awfi reported that Ibn `Abbas said,
[وَزَكَوةً]
(and Zakatan,) "This means that he was a blessing.''
[وَكَانَ تَقِيًّا]
(and he was pious.)[19:13] meaning that he was pure and had no inclination to do sins. Allah said;
[وَبَرًّا بِوَلِدَيْهِ وَلَمْ يَكُن جَبَّاراً عَصِيّاً ]
(And dutiful to his parents, and he was not arrogant or disobedient.) After Allah mentioned Yahya's obedience to his Lord and that Allah created him full of mercy, purity and piety, He attached to it his obedience to his parents and his good treatment of them. Allah mentioned that he refrained from disobeying them in speech, actions, commands and prohibitions. Due to this Allah says,
[وَلَمْ يَكُن جَبَّاراً عَصِيّاً]
(and he was not arrogant or disobedient.) Then, after mentioning these beautiful characteristics, Allah mentions his reward for this,
[وَسَلَـمٌ عَلَيْهِ يَوْمَ وُلِدَ وَيَوْمَ يَمُوتُ وَيَوْمَ يُبْعَثُ حَياً ]
(And Salam (peace) be on him the day he was born, and the day he dies, and the day he will be raised up to life (again)!) This means that he had security and safety in these three circumstances. Sufyan bin `Uyaynah said, "The loneliest that a man will ever feel is in three situations. The first situation is on the day that he is born, when he sees himself coming out of what he was in. The second situation is on the day that he dies, when he sees people that he will not see anymore. The third situation is on the day when he is resurrected, when he sees himself in the great gathering. Allah has exclusively honored Yahya, the son of Zakariyya, by granting him peace in these situations. Allah says,
[وَسَلَـمٌ عَلَيْهِ يَوْمَ وُلِدَ وَيَوْمَ يَمُوتُ وَيَوْمَ يُبْعَثُ حَياً ]
(And Salam (peace) be on him the day he was born, and the day he dies, and the day he will be raised up to life (again)!) This narration was reported by Ibn Jarir, from Ahmad bin Mansur Al-Marwazi, from Sadaqah bin Al-Fadl, from Sufyan bin `Uyaynah.
[وَاذْكُرْ فِى الْكِتَـبِ مَرْيَمَ إِذِ انتَبَذَتْ مِنْ أَهْلِهَا مَكَاناً شَرْقِياً - فَاتَّخَذَتْ مِن دُونِهِم حِجَاباً فَأَرْسَلْنَآ إِلَيْهَآ رُوحَنَا فَتَمَثَّلَ لَهَا بَشَراً سَوِيّاً - قَالَتْ إِنِّى أَعُوذُ بِالرَّحْمَـنِ مِنكَ إِن كُنتَ تَقِيّاً - قَالَ إِنَّمَآ أَنَاْ رَسُولُ رَبِّكِ لاًّهَبَ لَكِ غُلَـماً زَكِيّاً - قَالَتْ أَنَّى يَكُونُ لِى غُلَـمٌ وَلَمْ يَمْسَسْنِى بَشَرٌ وَلَمْ أَكُ بَغِيّاً - قَالَ كَذلِكَ قَالَ رَبُّكَ هُوَ عَلَىَّ هَيِّنٌ وَلِنَجْعَلَهُ ءَايَةً لِّلْنَّاسِ وَرَحْمَةً مِّنَّا وَكَانَ أَمْراً مَّقْضِيّاً ]
(16. And mention in the Book, Maryam, when she withdrew in seclusion from her family to place facing east.) (17. She placed a screen before them; then We sent to her Our Ruh, and he appeared before her in the form of a man in all respects.) (18. She said: "Verily, I seek refuge with the Most Gracious (Allah) from you, if you do fear Allah.'') (19. (The angel) said: "I am only a messenger from your Lord, (to announce) to you the gift of a righteous son.'') (20. She said: "How can I have a son when no man has touched me, nor am I Baghiyya'') (21. He said: "Thus says your Lord: `That is easy for Me (Allah). And (We wish) to appoint him as a sign to mankind and a mercy from Us (Allah), and it is a matter (already) decreed (by Allah).''')
The Story of Maryam and Al-Masih (`Isa)
After Allah, the Exalted, mentioned the story of Zakariyya, and that He blessed him with a righteous, purified and blessed child even in his old age while his wife was barren, He then mentions the story of Maryam. Allah informs of His granting her a child named `Isa without a father being involved (in her pregnancy). Between these two stories there is an appropriate and similar relationship. Due to their closeness in meaning, Allah mentioned them here together, as well as in Surahs Al `Imran and Al-Anbiya'. Allah has mentioned these stories to show His servants His ability, the might of His authority and that He has power over all things. Allah says,
[وَاذْكُرْ فِى الْكِتَـبِ مَرْيَمَ]
(And mention in the Book, Maryam,) She was Maryam bint `Imran from the family lineage of Dawud. She was from a good and wholesome family of the Children of Israel. Allah mentioned the story of her mother's pregnancy with her in Surah Al `Imran, and that she (Maryam's mother) dedicated her freely for the service of Allah. This meant that she dedicated the child (Maryam) to the service of the Masjid of the Sacred House (in Jerusalem). Thus, they (Zakariyya, Maryam's mother and Maryam) were similar in that aspect.
[فَتَقَبَّلَهَا رَبُّهَا بِقَبُولٍ حَسَنٍ وَأَنبَتَهَا نَبَاتًا حَسَنًا]
(So her Lord (Allah) accepted her with goodly acceptance. He made her grow in a good manner.)[3:37] Thus, Maryam was raised among the Children of Israel in an honorable way. She was one of the female worshippers, well-known for her remarkable acts of worship, devotion and perseverance. She lived under the care of her brother-in-law, Zakariyya, who was a Prophet of the Children of Israel at that time. He was a great man among them, whom they would refer to in their religious matters. Zakariyya saw astonishing miracles occur from her that amazed him.
[كُلَّمَا دَخَلَ عَلَيْهَا زَكَرِيَّا الْمِحْرَابَ وَجَدَ عِندَهَا رِزْقًا قَالَ يمَرْيَمُ أَنَّى لَكِ هَـذَا قَالَتْ هُوَ مِنْ عِندِ اللَّهِ إنَّ اللَّهَ يَرْزُقُ مَن يَشَآءُ بِغَيْرِ حِسَابٍ]
(Every time Zakaiyya entered the Mihrab to (visit) her, he found her supplied with sustenance. He said: "O Maryam! From where have you got this'' She said, "This is from Allah.'' Verily, Allah provides to whom He wills, without limit.) [3:37] It has been mentioned that he would find her with winter fruit during the summer and summer fruit during the winter. This has already been explained in Surah Al `Imran. Then, when Allah wanted to grant her His servant and Messenger, `Isa, one of the five Great Messengers.
[انتَبَذَتْ مِنْ أَهْلِهَا مَكَاناً شَرْقِياً]
(she withdrew in seclusion from her family to place facing east.) [19:16] This means that she withdrew from them and secluded herself from them. She went to the eastern side of the Sacred Masjid (in Jerusalem). It is reported from Ibn `Abbas that he said, "Verily, I am the most knowledgeable of Allah's creation of why the Christians took the east as the direction of devotional worship. They did because of Allah's statement,
[انتَبَذَتْ مِنْ أَهْلِهَا مَكَاناً شَرْقِياً]
(When she withdrew in seclusion from her family to a place facing east.) Therefore, they took the birthplace of `Isa as their direction of worship.'' Concerning Allah's statement,
[فَاتَّخَذَتْ مِن دُونِهِم حِجَاباً]
(She placed a screen before them;) This means that she hid herself from them and concealed herself. Then, Allah sent Jibril to her.
[فَتَمَثَّلَ لَهَا بَشَراً سَوِيّاً]
(and he appeared before her in the form of a man in all respects.) [19:17] This means that he came to her in the form of a perfect and complete man. Mujahid, Ad-Dahhak, Qatadah, Ibn Jurayj, Wahb bin Munabbih and As-Suddi all commented on Allah's statement,
[فَأَرْسَلْنَآ إِلَيْهَآ رُوحَنَا]
(then We sent to her Our Ruh,) "It means Jibril.''
[قَالَتْ إِنِّى أَعُوذُ بِالرَّحْمَـنِ مِنكَ إِن كُنتَ تَقِيّاً ]
(She said: "Verily, I seek refuge with the Most Gracious from you, if you do fear Allah.'') This means that when the angel (Jibril) appeared to her in the form of a man, while she was in a place secluded by herself with a partition between her and her people, she was afraid of him and thought that he wanted to rape her. Therefore, she said,
[إِنِّى أَعُوذُ بِالرَّحْمَـنِ مِنكَ إِن كُنتَ تَقِيّاً]
(Verily, I seek refuge with the Most Gracious from you, if you do fear Allah.) She meant, "If you fear Allah,'' as a means of reminding him of Allah. This is what is legislated in defense against (evil), so that it may be repulsed with ease. Therefore, the first thing she did was try to make him fear Allah, the Mighty and Sublime. Ibn Jarir reported from `Asim that Abu Wa'il said when mentioning the story of Maryam, "She knew that the pious person would refrain (from committing evil) when she said,
[إِنِّى أَعُوذُ بِالرَّحْمَـنِ مِنكَ إِن كُنتَ تَقِيّاًقَالَ إِنَّمَآ أَنَاْ رَسُولُ رَبِّكِ]
("Verily, I seek refuge with the Most Gracious from you, if you do fear Allah.'' He said: "I am only a messenger from your Lord...'') This means that the angel said to her in response, and in order to remove the fear that she felt within herself, "I am not what you think, but I am the messenger of your Lord.'' By this he meant, "Allah has sent me to you.'' It is said that when she mentioned the (Name of the) Most Beneficent (Ar-Rahman), Jibril fell apart and returned to his true form (as an angel). He responded, (إِنَّمَآ أَنَاْ رَسُولُ رَبِّكِ لِيَهَب لَكِ غُلَـمًا زَكِيًّا) `I am only a messenger from your Lord, to provide to you the gift of a righteous son.'
[قَالَتْ أَنَّى يَكُونُ لِى غُلَـمٌ]
(She said: "How can I have a son...'') This means that Maryam was amazed at this. She said, "How can I have a son'' She said this to mean, "In what way would a son be born to me when I do not have a husband and I do not commit any wicked acts (i.e. fornication)'' For this reason she said,
[وَلَمْ يَمْسَسْنِى بَشَرٌ وَلَمْ أَكُ بَغِيّاً]
(when no man has touched me, nor am I Baghiyya) The Baghiyy is a female fornicator. For this reason, a Hadith has been reported prohibiting the money earned from Baghiyy.
[قَالَ كَذَلِكَ قَالَ رَبُّكَ هُوَ عَلَىَّ هَيِّنٌ]
(He said: "Thus said your Lord: `That is easy for Me (Allah)...'') This means that the angel said to her in response to her question, "Verily, Allah has said that a boy will be born from you even though you do not have a husband and you have not committed any lewdness. Verily, He is Most Able to do whatever He wills.'' Due to this, he (Jibril) conveyed Allah's Words,
[وَلِنَجْعَلَهُ ءَايَةً لِّلْنَّاسِ]
(And (We wish) to appoint him as a sign to mankind) This means a proof and a sign for mankind of the power of their Maker and Creator, Who diversified them in their creation. He created their father, Adam, without a male (father) or female (mother). Then, He created Hawwa' (Adam's spouse) from a male (father) without a female (mother). Then, He created the rest of their progeny from male and female, except `Isa. He caused `Isa to be born from a female without a male. Thus, Allah completed the four types of creation (of the human being), which proves the perfection of His power and the magnificence of His authority. There is no god worthy of worship except Him and there is no true Lord other than Him. Concerning Allah's statement,
[وَرَحْمَةً مِّنَّا]
(and a mercy from Us,) This means, "We will make this boy a mercy from Allah and a Prophet from among the Prophets. He will call to the worship of Allah and monotheistic belief in Him. This is as Allah, the Exalted, said in another Ayah,
[إِذْ قَالَتِ الْمَلَـئِكَةُ يمَرْيَمُ إِنَّ اللَّهَ يُبَشِّرُكِ بِكَلِمَةٍ مِّنْهُ اسْمُهُ الْمَسِيحُ عِيسَى ابْنُ مَرْيَمَ وَجِيهًا فِي الدُّنْيَا وَالاٌّخِرَةِ وَمِنَ الْمُقَرَّبِينَ - وَيُكَلِّمُ النَّاسَ فِى الْمَهْدِ وَكَهْلاً وَمِنَ الصَّـلِحِينَ ]
((Remember) when the angels said: "O Maryam! Verily, Allah gives you the good news of a Word from Him, his name will be Al-Masih, `Isa, the son of Maryam, held in honor in this world and in the Hereafter, and will be one of those who are near to Allah. And he will speak to the people, in the cradle and in manhood, and he will be one of the righteous.) [3:45-46] This means that he will call to the worship of his Lord in his cradle and while and adult. Concerning His statement,
[وَكَانَ أَمْراً مَّقْضِيّاً]
(and it is a matter (already) decreed (by Allah).) This is the completion of Jibril's dialogue with Maryam. He informed her that this matter was preordained by Allah's power and will. Muhammad bin Ishaq said,
[وَكَانَ أَمْراً مَّقْضِيّاً]
(and it is a matter (already) decreed (by Allah).) "This means that Allah determined to do this, so there is no avoiding it.''
[فَحَمَلَتْهُ فَانْتَبَذَتْ بِهِ مَكَاناً قَصِيّاً - فَأَجَآءَهَا الْمَخَاضُ إِلَى جِذْعِ النَّخْلَةِ قَالَتْ يلَيْتَنِى مِتُّ قَبْلَ هَـذَا وَكُنتُ نَسْياً مَّنسِيّاً ]
(22. So she conceived him, and she withdrew with him to a remote place.) (23. And the pains of childbirth drove her to the trunk of a date palm. She said: "Would that I had died before this, and had been forgotten and out of sight!'')
The Conception and the Birth
Allah, the Exalted, informs about Maryam that when Jibril had spoken to her about what Allah said, she accepted the decree of Allah. Many scholars of the predecessors (Salaf) have mentioned that at this point the angel (who was Jibril) blew into the opening of the garment that she was wearing. Then the breath descended until it entered into her vagina and she conceived the child by the leave of Allah. Muhammad bin Ishaq said, "When she conceived him and filled her water jug (at a well), she returned (to her people). After this, her menstrual bleeding ceased and she experienced what the pregnant woman experiences of sickness, hunger, change of color and there was even a change in the manner of her speech. After this, no people came to visit any house like they did the house of Zakariyya. The word spread among the Children of Israel and the people were saying, `Verily, her partner (in fornication) was Yusuf, because there was no one else in the temple with her except him.' So she hid herself from the people and placed a veil between herself and them. No one saw her and she did not see anyone else.'' Allah said;
[فَأَجَآءَهَا الْمَخَاضُ إِلَى جِذْعِ النَّخْلَةِ]
(And the pains of childbirth drove her to the trunk of a date palm.) This means that her pains of labor compelled her to go to the trunk of a date-palm tree that was at the place where she had secluded herself. The scholars differed over its location. As-Suddi said, "Her place of seclusion was to the east and that was where she would pray at the Sacred House of Jerusalem.'' Wahb bin Munabbih said, "She ran away and when she reached an area between Ash-Sham and Egypt, she was overcome by labor pains.'' In another narration from Wahb, he said, "This took place eight miles from the Sacred House of Jerusalem in a village that was known as Bayt Al-Lahm (Bethlehem).'' I say, there are Hadiths about the Isra' (Night Journey of the Prophet ) that are reported by An-Nasa'i on the authority of Anas, and Al-Bayhaqi on the authority of Shadad bin Aws, that say that this took place at Bait Al-Lahm. Allah knows best. This is what is well known that the people all relate from each other. The Christians have no doubt held that the place of this occurrence was Bethlehem and this is what all the people relate. It has been related in a Hadith also, if the Hadith is authentic. Allah says, informing about her,
[قَالَتْ يلَيْتَنِى مِتُّ قَبْلَ هَـذَا وَكُنتُ نَسْياً مَّنسِيّاً]
(She said: "Would that I had died before this, and had been forgotten and out of sight!'') In this is an evidence of the permissibility to wish for death when a calamity strikes. She knew that she was going to be tested with the birth, the people would not assist her, and they would not believe her story. After she was known as a devout worshipper among them, they now thought that she had become a fornicating whore. She said,
[يلَيْتَنِى مِتُّ قَبْلَ هَـذَا]
(Would that I had died before this,) She said this to mean before this situation.
[وَكُنتُ نَسْياً مَّنسِيّاً]
(and I had been forgotten and out of sight!) This means, "I wish I had not been created and I was nothing.'' This was mentioned by Ibn `Abbas. Qatadah said,
[وَكُنتُ نَسْياً مَّنسِيّاً]
(and I had been forgotten and out of sight!) "This means something unknown, forgotten and no one knew who I was.''
[فَنَادَاهَا مِن تَحْتِهَآ أَلاَّ تَحْزَنِى قَدْ جَعَلَ رَبُّكِ تَحْتَكِ سَرِيّاً - وَهُزِّى إِلَيْكِ بِجِذْعِ النَّخْلَةِ تُسَـقِطْ عَلَيْكِ رُطَباً جَنِيّاً - فَكُلِى وَاشْرَبِى وَقَرِّى عَيْناً فَإِمَّا تَرَيِنَّ مِنَ البَشَرِ أَحَداً فَقُولِى إِنِّى نَذَرْتُ لِلرَّحْمَـنِ صَوْماً فَلَنْ أُكَلِّمَ الْيَوْمَ إِنسِيّاً ]
(24. Then he cried unto her from below her, saying: "Grieve not: your Lord has provided a Sariy under you.'') (25. "And shake the trunk of date palm towards you, it will let fall fresh ripe dates upon you.'') (26. "So eat and drink and rejoice. And if you see any human being, say: `Verily, I have vowed a fast for the Most Gracious so I shall not speak to any human being today.,'')
What was said to Her after the Birth Some reciters read the Ayah as, (مَنْ تَحتَها)
(Who was below her) Meaning the one who was below her called to her. Others recited it as,
[مِن تَحْتِهَآ]
(from below her) With the meaning of a preposition (from) instead of a pronoun (who). The scholars of Tafsir have differed over the interpretation of who was calling out. Al-`Awfi and others reported from Ibn `Abbas that he said,
[فَنَادَاهَا مِن تَحْتِهَآ]
(Then cried unto her from below her,) "This is referring to Jibrilbecause `Isa did not speak until she brought him to her people.'' Similarly, Sa`id bin Jubayr, Ad-Dahhak, `Amr bin Maymun, As-Suddi and Qatadah all said, "Verily, this is referring to the angel Jibril.'' This means that he (Jibril) called out to her from the bottom of the valley. Mujahid said,
[فَنَادَاهَا مِن تَحْتِهَآ]
(Then cried unto her from below her,) "This is referring to `Isa bin Maryam.'' Likewise, `Abdur-Razzaq reported from Ma`mar that Qatadah said that Al-Hasan said, "This is referring to her son (`Isa).'' This is also one of the two opinions reported from Sa`id bin Jubayr -- that it was her son, `Isa, speaking. Sa`id said, "Have you not heard Allah saying,
[فَأَشَارَتْ إِلَيْهِ]
(Then she pointed to him.) Ibn Zayd and Ibn Jarir preferred this opinion in his Tafsir. Allah said,
[أَلاَّ تَحْزَنِى]
(Grieve not:) He called to her saying, "Do not grieve.''
[قَدْ جَعَلَ رَبُّكِ تَحْتَكِ سَرِيّاً]
(your Lord has provided a Sariy under you.) Sufyan Ath-Thawri and Shu`bah reported from Abu Ishaq that Al-Bara' bin `Azib said, s
[قَدْ جَعَلَ رَبُّكِ تَحْتَكِ سَرِيّاً]
(your Lord has provided a Sariy under you.) "This means a small stream.'' Likewise, `Ali bin Abi Talhah reported that Ibn `Abbas said, "Sariy means a river.'' `Amr bin Maymun held the same view, as he said, "It means a river for her to drink from.'' Mujahid said, "It means river in the Syrian language.'' Sa`id bin Jubayr said, "Sariy is a small flowing river.'' Others said that Sariy refers to `Isa. This was said by Al-Hasan, Ar-Rabi` bin Anas, Muhammad bin `Abbad bin Ja`far, and it is one of the two opinions reported from Qatadah. It is also the view of `Abdur-Rahman bin Zayd bin Aslam. However, the first view seems to be the most obvious meaning. For this reason, Allah said after it,
[وَهُزِّى إِلَيْكِ بِجِذْعِ النَّخْلَةِ]
(And shake the trunk of date palm towards you,) meaning, "Grab the trunk of the date-palm tree and shake it towards yourself.'' Therefore, Allah blessed her by giving her food and drink. Then He said,
[تُسَـقِطْ عَلَيْكِ رُطَباً جَنِيّاًفَكُلِى وَاشْرَبِى وَقَرِّى عَيْناً]
(It will let fall fresh ripe dates upon you. So eat and drink and rejoice.) Meaning to be happy. This is why `Amr bin Maymun said, "Nothing is better for the woman confined in childbed than dried dates and fresh dates.'' Then he recited this noble Ayah. Concerning Allah's statement,
[فَإِمَّا تَرَيِنَّ مِنَ البَشَرِ أَحَداً]
(And if you see any human being,) This means any person that you see,
[فَقُولِى إِنِّى نَذَرْتُ لِلرَّحْمَـنِ صَوْماً فَلَنْ أُكَلِّمَ الْيَوْمَ إِنسِيّاً]
(Say: `Verily, I have vowed a fast unto the Most Gracious (Allah) so I shall not speak to any human being today.') Meaning, by signaling with gestures, not a statement by speech. This is so that she does not negate her oath itself,
[فَلَنْ أُكَلِّمَ الْيَوْمَ إِنسِيّاً]
(so I shall not speak to any human being today. ) Anas bin Malik commented on,
[إِنِّى نَذَرْتُ لِلرَّحْمَـنِ صَوْماً]
(I have vowed a fast unto the Most Gracious) He said; "A vow of silence.'' Likewise said Ibn `Abbas and Ad-Dahhak. The meaning here is that in their Law, when fasting, it was forbidden for them to eat and speak. As-Suddi, Qatadah and `Abdur-Rahman bin Zayd have all stated this view. `Abdur-Rahman bin Zayd said, "When `Isa said to Maryam,
[أَلاَّ تَحْزَنِى]
(Grieve not) She said, `How can I not grieve when you are with me and I have no husband nor am I an owned slave woman What excuse do I have with the people Woe unto me, if I had only died before this, and had been a thing forgotten and unknown.' Then, `Isa said to her, `I will suffice you with a statement,
[فَإِمَّا تَرَيِنَّ مِنَ البَشَرِ أَحَداً فَقُولِى إِنِّى نَذَرْتُ لِلرَّحْمَـنِ صَوْماً فَلَنْ أُكَلِّمَ الْيَوْمَ إِنسِيّاً]
(And if you see any human being, say: `Verily, I have vowed a fast unto the Most Gracious so I shall not speak to any human being this day.')' All of this is from the speech of `Isa to his mother.'' Wahb said the same as well.
[فَأَتَتْ بِهِ قَوْمَهَا تَحْمِلُهُ قَالُواْ يمَرْيَمُ لَقَدْ جِئْتِ شَيْئاً فَرِيّاً - يأُخْتَ هَـرُونَ مَا كَانَ أَبُوكِ امْرَأَ سَوْءٍ وَمَا كَانَتْ أُمُّكِ بَغِيّاً - فَأَشَارَتْ إِلَيْهِ قَالُواْ كَيْفَ نُكَلِّمُ مَن كَانَ فِى الْمَهْدِ صَبِيّاً - قَالَ إِنِّى عَبْدُ اللَّهِ ءَاتَانِىَ الْكِتَـبَ وَجَعَلَنِى نَبِيّاً - وَجَعَلَنِى مُبَارَكاً أَيْنَ مَا كُنتُ وَأَوْصَانِى بِالصَّلَوةِ وَالزَّكَوةِ مَا دُمْتُ حَيّاً - وَبَرّاً بِوَالِدَتِى وَلَمْ يَجْعَلْنِى جَبَّاراً شَقِيّاً - وَالسَّلَـمُ عَلَىَّ يَوْمَ وُلِدْتُّ وَيَوْمَ أَمُوتُ وَيَوْمَ أُبْعَثُ حَيّاً ]
(27. Then she brought him to her people, carrying him. They said: "O Mary! Indeed you have brought a thing Fariy.'') (28. "O sister of Harun! Your father was not a man who used to commit adultery, nor your mother was an unchaste woman.'') (29. Then she pointed to him. They said: "How can we talk to one who is a child in the cradle'') (30. He said: "Verily, I am a servant of Allah, He has given me the Scripture and made me a Prophet;'') (31. "And He has made me blessed wherever I be, and has enjoined on me [Awsani] Salah and Zakah, as long as I live.'') (32. "And to be dutiful to my mother, and made me not arrogant, unblessed.'') (33. "And Salam (peace) be upon me the day I was born, and the day I die, and the day I shall be raised alive!'')
Maryam with Al-Masih before the People, Their Rejection of Her and His Reply to Them
Allah, the Exalted, informs of Maryam's situation when she was commanded to fast that day and not to speak to any human being. For verily, her affair would be taken care of and her proof would be established. Thus, she accepted the command of Allah and she readily received His decree. She took her child and brought him to her people, carrying him. When they saw her like this they made a big deal about her situation and they sternly protested against of it, and
[قَالُواْ يمَرْيَمُ لَقَدْ جِئْتِ شَيْئاً فَرِيّاً]
(They said: "O Mary! Indeed you have brought a thing Fariy.'') Fariy means a mighty thing. This was said by Mujahid, Qatadah, As-Suddi and others. Ibn Abi Hatim reported from Nawf Al-Bikali that he said, "Her people went out searching for her, she was from a family that was blessed with prophethood and nobility. However, they could not find any trace of her. They came across a cow herder and they asked him, `Have you seen a girl whose description is such and such' He replied, `No, but tonight I saw my cows doing something that I've never seen them do before.' They asked, `What did you see' He said, `Tonight I saw them prostrating in the direction of that valley.''' `Abdullah bin Ziyad said (adding to the narration), "I memorized from Sayyar that he (the cattle herder) said, `I saw a radiant light.' '' So they went towards the direction that he told him, and Maryam was coming towards them from that direction. When she saw them she sat down and she was holding her child in her lap. They came towards her until they were standing over her.
[قَالُواْ يمَرْيَمُ لَقَدْ جِئْتِ شَيْئاً فَرِيّاً]
(They said: "O Mary! Indeed you have brought a mighty thing (Fariy).'') This means it was a mighty thing that she had brought.
[يأُخْتَ هَـرُونَ]
(O sister of Harun!) This means, "O one resembling Harun (Aaron) in worship.''
[مَا كَانَ أَبُوكِ امْرَأَ سَوْءٍ وَمَا كَانَتْ أُمُّكِ بَغِيّاً]
(Your father was not a man who used to commit adultery, nor your mother was an unchaste woman.) They meant, "You are from a good, pure family, well-known for its righteousness, worship and abstinence from worldy indulgence. How could you do such a thing'' `Ali bin Abi Talhah and As-Suddi both said, "It was said to her,
[يأُخْتَ هَـرُونَ]
(O sister of Harun!) referring to the brother of Musa, because she was of his descendants. This is similar to the saying, `O brother of Tamim,' to one who is from the Tamimi tribe, and `O brother of Mudar,' to one who is from the Mudari tribe. It has also been said that she was related to a righteous man among them whose name was Harun and she was comparable to him in her abstinence and worship. Concerning Allah's statement,
[فَأَشَارَتْ إِلَيْهِ قَالُواْ كَيْفَ نُكَلِّمُ مَن كَانَ فِى الْمَهْدِ صَبِيّاً ]
(Then she pointed to him. They said: "How can we talk to one who is a child in the cradle'') This is what took place while they were in doubt about her situation, condeming her circumstances, saying what they wanted to say. At that time they were slandering her and falsely accusing her of a horrendous act. On that day she was fasting and keeping silent. Therefore, she referred all speech to him (the child) and she directed them to his address and speech to them. They scoffed at her because they thought that she was mocking at them and playing with them. They said,
[كَيْفَ نُكَلِّمُ مَن كَانَ فِى الْمَهْدِ صَبِيّاً]
(How can we talk to one who is a child in the cradle) Maymun bin Mahran said,
[فَأَشَارَتْ إِلَيْهِ]
(Then she pointed to him.) "She indicated, `Speak to him.' They then said, `After she has come to us with this calamity, she now commands us to speak to one who is a child in the cradle!''' As-Suddi said, "When she pointed to him they became angry and said, `Her mocking us, to the extent of commanding us to speak to this child, is worse to us than her fornication.' ''
[قَالُواْ كَيْفَ نُكَلِّمُ مَن كَانَ فِى الْمَهْدِ صَبِيّاً]
(They said: "How can we talk to one who is a child in the cradle'') This means, "How can someone speak who is in his cradle, in the state of infancy and a child'' `Isa said,
[إِنِّى عَبْدُ اللَّهِ]
(Verily, I am a servant of Allah,) The first thing that he said was a declaration of the lofty honor of his Lord and His being free of having a child. Also, he affirmed that he himself was a worshipper of his Lord. Allah said,
[ءَاتَانِىَ الْكِتَـبَ وَجَعَلَنِى نَبِيّاً]
(He has given me the Scripture and made me a Prophet.) This was a declaration of innocence for his mother from the immorality that was attributed to her. Nawf Al-Bikali said, "When they said what they said to his mother, he (`Isa) was nursing from her breast. At their statement he released the breast from his mouth and reclined on his left saying,
[إِنِّى عَبْدُ اللَّهِ ءَاتَانِىَ الْكِتَـبَ وَجَعَلَنِى نَبِيّاً]
(Verily, I am a servant of Allah, He has given me the Scripture and made me a Prophet.) And he continued speaking until he said,
[مَا دُمْتُ حَيّاً]
(as long as I live.)'' Concerning his statement,
[وَجَعَلَنِى مُبَارَكاً أَيْنَ مَا كُنتُ]
(And He has made me blessed wherever I be,) Mujahid, `Amr bin Qays and Ath-Thawri all said that this means, "And He made me a teacher of goodness.'' In another narration from Mujahid, he said, "A person of great benefit.'' Ibn Jarir reported from Wuhayb bin Al-Ward, a freed slave of the Bani Makhzum tribe, that he said, "A scholar met another scholar who had more knowledge than himself. So he said to him, `May Allah have mercy upon you, what acts of mine should I perform openly' The other replied, `Commanding good and forbidding evil, for verily, it is the religion of Allah, which He sent His Prophets with to His servants.' The scholars have indeed agreed upon the statement of Allah,
[وَجَعَلَنِى مُبَارَكاً أَيْنَ مَا كُنتُ]
(And He has made me blessed wherever I be,) Then it was said, `What was his blessing' He (Wuhayb) replied, `Commanding good and forbidding evil wherever he was.' '' His saying,
[وَأَوْصَانِى بِالصَّلَوةِ وَالزَّكَوةِ مَا دُمْتُ حَيّاً]
(and He has enjoined on me [Awsani] Salah and Zakah, as long as I live.) This is similar to the statement of Allah to Muhammad ,
[وَاعْبُدْ رَبَّكَ حَتَّى يَأْتِيَكَ الْيَقِينُ ]
(And worship your Lord until there comes unto you the certainty (i.e. death).) [15:99] `Abdur-Rahman bin Al-Qasim reported from Malik bin Anas that he commented on Allah's statement,
[وَأَوْصَانِى بِالصَّلَوةِ وَالزَّكَوةِ مَا دُمْتُ حَيّاً]
(and He has enjoined on me [Awsani] Salah and Zakah, as long as I live.) He said, "Allah informed him of what would be of his affair until his death. This is the firmest evidence against the people who deny Allah's preordained decree.'' Concerning Allah's statement,
[وَبَرّاً بِوَالِدَتِى]
(And to be dutiful to my mother.) This means, "He (Allah) has commanded me to treat my mother well.'' He mentioned this after mentioning obedience to his Lord, Allah. This is because Allah often combines the command to worship Him with obedience to the parents. This is similar to Allah's statement,
[وَقَضَى رَبُّكَ أَلاَّ تَعْبُدُواْ إِلاَّ إِيَّـهُ وَبِالْوَلِدَيْنِ إِحْسَـناً]
(And your Lord has decreed that you worship none but Him and that you be dutiful to your parents.) [17:23] And He, the Exalted, said,
[أَنِ اشْكُرْ لِى وَلِوَلِدَيْكَ إِلَىَّ الْمَصِيرُ]
(Give thanks to Me and to your parents. Unto Me is the final destination.) [31:14] Concerning his statement,
[وَلَمْ يَجْعَلْنِى جَبَّاراً شَقِيّاً]
(and He made me not arrogant, unblessed.) This means, "He (Allah) has not made me too proud or arrogant to worship Him, obey Him and be dutiful to my mother, and thus be unblessed.'' Concerning Allah's statement,
[وَالسَّلَـمُ عَلَىَّ يَوْمَ وُلِدْتُّ وَيَوْمَ أَمُوتُ وَيَوْمَ أُبْعَثُ حَيّاً ]
(And Salam (peace) be upon me the day I was born, and the day I die, and the day I shall be raised alive!) This is his affirmation that `he is a worshipper of Allah, the Mighty and Sublime, and that he is a creature created by Allah. He (`Isa) will live, die and be resurrected, just like the other creatures that Allah has created. However, he will have peace in these situations, which are the most difficult situations for Allah's creatures.' May Allah's peace and blessings be upon him.
[ذلِكَ عِيسَى ابْنُ مَرْيَمَ قَوْلَ الْحَقِّ الَّذِى فِيهِ يَمْتُرُونَ - مَا كَانَ للَّهِ أَن يَتَّخِذَ مِن وَلَدٍ سُبْحَـنَهُ إِذَا قَضَى أَمْراً فَإِنَّمَا يَقُولُ لَهُ كُن فَيَكُونُ - وَإِنَّ اللَّهَ رَبِّى وَرَبُّكُمْ فَاعْبُدُوهُ هَـذَا صِرَطٌ مُّسْتَقِيمٌ - فَاخْتَلَفَ الاٌّحْزَابُ مِن بَيْنِهِمْ فَوْيْلٌ لِّلَّذِينَ كَفَرُواْ مِن مَّشْهِدِ يَوْمٍ عَظِيمٍ ]
(34. Such is `Isa, son of Maryam. Qawlal-Haqq [it is a statement of truth] about which they doubt (or dispute).) (35. It befits not (the majesty of) Allah that He should beget a son. Glorified be He. When He decrees a thing, He only says to it: "Be!'' -- and it is.) (36. [`Isa said]: "And verily, Allah is my Lord and your Lord. So worship Him. That is the straight path.'') (37. Then the sects differed, so woe unto the disbelievers from the meeting of a great Day.)
`Isa is the Servant of Allah and not His Son
Allah, the Exalted, says to His Messenger Muhammad , `This is the story which We have related to you about `Isa,' upon him be peace.
[قَوْلَ الْحَقِّ الَّذِى فِيهِ يَمْتُرُونَ]
((It is) a statement of truth about which they doubt.) lThis means that the people of falsehood and the people of truth are in disagreement, of those who believe in him and those who disbelieve believe in him. For this reason most of the reciters recited this Ayah with Qawlul-Haqq (statement of truth) as the subject, referring to `Isa himself. `Asim and `Abdullah bin `Amir both recited it Qawlal-Haqq (statement of truth) referring to the story in its entirety that the people differed about. It is reported from Ibn Mas`ud that he recited it as Qalal-Haqqa, which means that he (`Isa) said the truth. The recitation of the Ayah with the Qawlul-Haqq being the subject referring to `Isa, is the most apparent meaning grammatically. It has support for it in the statement of Allah [after the story of `Isa],
[الْحَقُّ مِن رَّبِّكَ فَلاَ تَكُنْ مِّن الْمُمْتَرِينَ ]
((This is) the truth from your Lord, so be not of those who doubt.) [3:60] When Allah mentioned that He created him as a servant and a Prophet, He extolled Himself, the Most Holy, by saying,
[مَا كَانَ للَّهِ أَن يَتَّخِذَ مِن وَلَدٍ سُبْحَـنَهُ]
(It befits not (the majesty of) Allah that He should beget a son. Glorified be He.) Means glory be unto Him, He is far exalted above that which these ignorant, wrongdoing, transgressing people say about Him.
[إِذَا قَضَى أَمْرًا فَإِنَّمَا يَقُولُ لَهُ كُن فَيَكُونُ]
(When He decrees a thing, He only says to it: "Be!'' -- and it is.) Whenever He wants something, He merely commands it and it happens as He wills. This is as Allah says,
[إِنَّ مَثَلَ عِيسَى عِندَ اللَّهِ كَمَثَلِ ءَادَمَ خَلَقَهُ مِن تُرَابٍ ثُمَّ قَالَ لَهُ كُن فَيَكُونُ - الْحَقُّ مِن رَّبِّكَ فَلاَ تَكُنْ مِّن الْمُمْتَرِينَ ]
(Verily, the likeness of `Isa before Allah is the likeness of Adam. He created him from dust, then said to him: "Be'' -- and he was. (This is) the truth from your Lord, so be not of those who doubt.) [3:59-60]
`Isa commanded the Worship of Allah Alone, then the People differed after Him
Allah said;
[وَإِنَّ اللَّهَ رَبِّى وَرَبُّكُمْ فَاعْبُدُوهُ هَـذَا صِرَطٌ مُّسْتَقِيمٌ ]
(And verily, Allah is my Lord and your Lord. So worship Him. That is the straight path.) Among those things which `Isa said to his people while he was in his cradle is that Allah was his Lord and their Lord, and he commanded them to worship Him alone. He said,
[فَاعْبُدُوهُ هَـذَا صِرَطٌ مُّسْتَقِيمٌ]
(So worship Him. That is the straight path.) Meaning, "That which I have come to you with from Allah is the straight path.'' This means that the path is correct; whoever follows it will be rightly guided and whoever opposes it will deviate and go astray. Allah's statement,
[فَاخْتَلَفَ الاٌّحْزَابُ مِن بَيْنِهِمْ]
(Then the sects differed,) means that the opinions of the People of the Book differed concerning `Isa even after the explanation of his affair and the clarification of his situation. They disagreed about his being the servant of Allah, His Messenger, and His Word that He cast upon Maryam and a spirit from Himself. So a group of them -- who were the majority of the Jews (may Allah's curses be upon them) -- determined that he was a child of fornication and that his speaking in his cradle was merely sorcery. Another group said that it was Allah Who was speaking (not `Isa). Others said that he (`Isa) was the son of Allah. Some said that he was the third part of a divine trinity with Allah. Yet, others said that he was the servant of Allah and His Messenger. This latter view is the statement of truth, which Allah guided the believers to. A report similar with this meaning has been reported from `Amr bin Maymun, Ibn Jurayj, Qatadah and others from the Salaf (predecessors) and the Khalaf (later generations). Allah said,
[فَوْيْلٌ لِّلَّذِينَ كَفَرُواْ مِن مَّشْهِدِ يَوْمٍ عَظِيمٍ]
(so woe unto the disbelievers from the meeting of a great Day.) This is a threat and severe warning for those who lie about Allah, invent falsehood and claim that He (Allah) has a son. However, Allah has given them respite until the Day of Resurrection, and He has delayed their term out of gentleness and confident reliance upon His divine decree overcoming them. Verily, Allah does not hasten the affair of those who disobey Him. This has been related in a Hadith collected in the Two Sahihs,
«إِنَّ اللهَ لَيُمْلِي لِلظَّالِمِ حَتَّى إِذَا أَخَذَهُ لَمْ يُفْلِتْه»
(Verily, Allah gives respite to the wrongdoer until He seizes him and he will not be able to escape Him.) Then, the Messenger of Allah recited the Ayah,
[وَكَذلِكَ أَخْذُ رَبِّكَ إِذَا أَخَذَ الْقُرَى وَهِىَ ظَـلِمَةٌ إِنَّ أَخْذَهُ أَلِيمٌ شَدِيدٌ ]
(Such is the punishment of your Lord when He punishes the towns while they are doing wrong. Verily, His punishment is painful, (and) severe.) [11:102] In the Two Sahihs it is also reported that the Messenger of Allah said,
«لَا أَحَدَ أَصْبَرُ عَلَى أَذىً سَمِعَهُ مِنَ اللهِ، إِنَّهُمْ يَجْعَلُونَ لَهُ وَلَدًا وَهُوَ يَرْزُقُهُمْ وَيُعَافِيهِم»
(No one is more patient with something harmful that he hears than Allah. Verily, they attribute to Him a son, while He is the One Who provides them sustenance and good health.) Allah says,
[وَكَأَيِّن مِّن قَرْيَةٍ أَمْلَيْتُ لَهَا وَهِىَ ظَـلِمَةٌ ثُمَّ أَخَذْتُهَا وَإِلَىَّ الْمَصِيرُ ]
(And many a township did I give respite while it was given to wrongdoing. Then I punished it. And to me is the (final) return (of all).) [22:48] Allah, the Exalted, also says,
[وَلاَ تَحْسَبَنَّ اللَّهَ غَـفِلاً عَمَّا يَعْمَلُ الظَّـلِمُونَ إِنَّمَا يُؤَخِّرُهُمْ لِيَوْمٍ تَشْخَصُ فِيهِ الأَبْصَـرُ ]
(Consider not that Allah is unaware of that which the wrongdoers do, but He gives them respite up to a Day when the eyes will stare in horror.)[14:42] This is the reason that Allah says here,
[فَوْيْلٌ لِّلَّذِينَ كَفَرُواْ مِن مَّشْهِدِ يَوْمٍ عَظِيمٍ]
(So woe unto the disbelievers from the meeting of a great Day.) referring to the Day of Resurrection. It has been related in an authentic Hadith that is agreed upon (in Al-Bukhari and Muslim), on the authority of `Ubadah bin As-Samit who said that the Messenger of Allah said,
«مَنْ شَهِدَ أَنْ لَا إِلَهَ إِلَّا اللهُ وَحْدَهُ لَا شَرِيكَ لَهُ، وَأَنَّ مُحَمَّدًا عَبْدُهُ وَرَسُولُهُ، وَأَنَّ عِيسَى عَبْدُاللهِ وَرَسُولُهُ وَكَلِمَتُهُ أَلْقَاهَا إِلَى مَرْيَمَ وَرُوحٌ مِنْهُ، وَأَنَّ الْجَنَّةَ حَقٌّ وَالنَّارَ حَقٌّ، أَدْخَلَهُ اللهُ الْجَنَّةَ عَلَى مَا كَانَ مِنَ الْعَمَل»
(Whoever testifies that there is no deity worthy of worship except Allah alone, Who has no partners, and that Muhammad is His servant and Messenger, and that `Isa was Allah's servant and Messenger, and His Word that He cast upon Maryam, and a spirit from Him, and that Paradise and Hell are both real, then Allah will admit him into Paradise regardless of whatever he did.)
[أَسْمِعْ بِهِمْ وَأَبْصِرْ يَوْمَ يَأْتُونَنَا لَـكِنِ الظَّـلِمُونَ الْيَوْمَ فِى ضَلَـلٍ مُّبِينٍ ]
[وَأَنْذِرْهُمْ يَوْمَ الْحَسْرَةِ إِذْ قُضِىَ الاٌّمْرُ وَهُمْ فِى غَفْلَةٍ وَهُمْ لاَ يُؤْمِنُونَ - إِنَّا نَحْنُ نَرِثُ الاٌّرْضَ وَمَنْ عَلَيْهَا وَإِلَيْنَا يُرْجَعُونَ ]
(38. How clearly will they see and hear, the Day when they will appear before Us! But the wrongdoers today are in plain error.) (39. And warn them of the Day of grief and regrets, when the case has been decided, while (now) they are in a state of carelessness, and they believe not.) (40. Verily, We will inherit the earth and whatsoever is thereon. And to Us they all shall be returned.)


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