10 January 2011

Bob Marley

Bob Marley

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Bob Marley
Black and white picture of a man with long dreadlocks playing the guitar on stage.
Bob Marley performing in concert, circa 1980.
Background information
Birth name Nesta Robert Marley
Born 6 February 1945(1945-02-06)
Nine Mile, Saint Ann, Jamaica
Died 11 May 1981(1981-05-11) (aged 36)
Miami, Florida, United States
Genres Reggae, ska, rocksteady
Occupations Singer-songwriter, musician
Instruments Vocals, guitar, percussion
Years active 1962–81
Labels Studio One, Upsetter, Tuff Gong
Associated acts The Wailers, Wailers Band, The Upsetters, I Threes, Bob Marley & The Wailers
Website bobmarley.com
Robert Nesta "Bob" Marley, OM (6 February 1945 – 11 May 1981) was a Jamaican singer-songwriter and musician. He was the rhythm guitarist and lead singer for the ska, rocksteady and reggae bands The Wailers (1964–1974) and Bob Marley & The Wailers (1974–1981). Marley remains the most widely known and revered performer of reggae music, and is credited with helping spread both Jamaican music and the Rastafari movement to a worldwide audience.[1]
Marley's music was heavily influenced by the social issues of his homeland, and he is considered to have given voice to the specific political and cultural nexus of Jamaica.[2] His best-known hits include "I Shot the Sheriff", "No Woman, No Cry", "Could You Be Loved", "Stir It Up", "Jamming", "Redemption Song", "One Love" and, together with The Wailers, "Three Little Birds",[3] as well as the posthumous releases "Buffalo Soldier" and "Iron Lion Zion". The compilation album Legend (1984), released three years after his death, is reggae's best-selling album, going ten times Platinum (Diamond) in the U.S.,[4] and selling 20 million copies worldwide.[5][6]

Contents

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Early life and career

Bob Marley was born in the village of Nine Mile in Saint Ann Parish, Jamaica as Nesta Robert Marley.[7] A Jamaican passport official would later swap his first and middle names.[8] His father, Norval Sinclair Marley, was a white Jamaican of English descent whose family came from Essex, England. Norval was a captain in the Royal Marines, as well as a plantation overseer, when he married Cedella Booker, an Afro-Jamaican then 18 years old.[9] Norval provided financial support for his wife and child, but seldom saw them, as he was often away on trips. In 1955, when Marley was 10 years old, his father died of a heart attack at age 60.[10] Marley faced questions about his own racial identity throughout his life. He once reflected:
I don't have prejudice against meself. My father was a white and my mother was black. Them call me half-caste or whatever. Me don't dip on nobody's side. Me don't dip on the black man's side nor the white man's side. Me dip on God's side, the one who create me and cause me to come from black and white.[11]
Although Marley recognised his mixed ancestry, throughout his life and because of his beliefs, he self-identified as a black African, following the ideas of Pan-African leaders. Marley stated that his two biggest influences were the African-centered Marcus Garvey and Haile Selassie. A central theme in Bob Marley's message was the repatriation of black people to Zion, which in his view was Ethiopia, or more generally, Africa.[12] In songs such as "Black Survivor", "Babylon System", and "Blackman Redemption", Marley sings about the struggles of blacks and Africans against oppression from the West or "Babylon".[13]
Marley became friends with Neville "Bunny" Livingston (later known as Bunny Wailer), with whom he started to play music. He left school at the age of 14 to make music with Joe Higgs, a local singer and devout Rastafari. At a jam session with Higgs and Livingston, Marley met Peter McIntosh (later known as Peter Tosh), who had similar musical ambitions.[14] In 1962, Marley recorded his first two singles, "Judge Not" and "One Cup of Coffee", with local music producer Leslie Kong. These songs, released on the Beverley's label under the pseudonym of Bobby Martell,[15] attracted little attention. The songs were later re-released on the box set Songs of Freedom, a posthumous collection of Marley's work.

Musical career

The Wailers

Marley in concert in 1980, Zurich Switzerland
In 1963, Bob Marley, Bunny Wailer, Peter Tosh, Junior Braithwaite, Beverley Kelso, and Cherry Smith formed a ska and rocksteady group, calling themselves "The Teenagers". They later changed their name to "The Wailing Rudeboys", then to "The Wailing Wailers", at which point they were discovered by record producer Coxsone Dodd, and finally to "The Wailers". By 1966, Braithwaite, Kelso, and Smith had left The Wailers, leaving the core trio of Bob Marley, Bunny Wailer, and Peter Tosh.[16]
In 1966, Marley married Rita Anderson, and moved near his mother's residence in Wilmington, Delaware in the United States for a short time, during which he worked as a DuPont lab assistant and on the assembly line at a Chrysler plant, under the alias Donald Marley.[17]
Though raised in the Catholic tradition, Marley became captivated by Rastafarian beliefs in the 1960s, when away from his mother's influence.[18] Formally converted to Rastafari after returning to Jamaica, Marley began to wear his trademark dreadlocks (see the religion section for more on Marley's religious views). After a conflict with Dodd, Marley and his band teamed up with Lee "Scratch" Perry and his studio band, The Upsetters. Although the alliance lasted less than a year, they recorded what many consider The Wailers' finest work. Marley and Perry split after a dispute regarding the assignment of recording rights, but they would remain friends and work together again. Between 1968 and 1972, Bob and Rita Marley, Peter Tosh and Bunny Wailer re-cut some old tracks with JAD Records in Kingston and London in an attempt to commercialise The Wailers' sound. Bunny later asserted that these songs "should never be released on an album … they were just demos for record companies to listen to". Also in 1968, Bob and Rita visited the Bronx to see Johnny Nash's songwriter Jimmy Norman.[19] A three-day jam session with Norman and others, including Norman's co-writer Al Pyfrom, resulted in a 24-minute tape of Marley performing several of his own and Norman-Pyfrom's compositions. This tape is, according to Reggae archivist Roger Steffens, rare in that it was influenced by pop rather than reggae, as part of an effort to break Marley into the American charts.[19] According to an article in The New York Times, Marley experimented on the tape with different sounds, adopting a doo-wop style on "Stay With Me" and "the slow love song style of 1960's artists" on "Splish for My Splash".[19] An artist yet to establish himself outside his native Jamaica, Marley lived in Ridgmount Gardens, Camden, London during 1972.[20]
In 1972, the Wailers entered into an ill-fated deal with CBS Records and embarked on a tour with American soul singer Johnny Nash. Broke, the Wailers became stranded in London. Marley turned up at Island Records founder and producer Chris Blackwell's London office, and asked him to advance the cost of a new single. Since Jimmy Cliff, Island's top reggae star, had recently left the label, Blackwell was primed for a replacement. In Marley, Blackwell recognized the elements needed to snare the rock audience: "I was dealing with rock music, which was really rebel music. I felt that would really be the way to break Jamaican music. But you needed someone who could be that image. When Bob walked in he really was that image."[21] Blackwell told Marley he wanted The Wailers to record a complete album (essentially unheard of at the time). When Marley told him it would take between £3,000 and £4,000, Blackwell trusted him with the greater sum. Despite their "rude boy" reputation, the Wailers returned to Kingston and honored the deal, delivering the album Catch A Fire.
Primarily recorded on eight-track at Harry J's in Kingston, Catch A Fire marked the first time a reggae band had access to a state-of-the-art studio and were accorded the same care as their rock'n'roll peers.[21] Blackwell desired to create "more of a drifting, hypnotic-type feel than a reggae rhythm",[22] and restructured Marley's mixes and arrangements. Marley travelled to London to supervise Blackwell's overdubbing of the album, which included tempering the mix from the bass-heavy sound of Jamaican music, and omitting two tracks.[21]
The Wailers' first major label album, Catch a Fire was released worldwide in April 1973, packaged like a rock record with a unique Zippo lighter lift-top. Initially selling 14,000 units, it didn't make Marley a star, but received a positive critical reception.[21] It was followed later that year by Burnin', which included the standout songs "Get Up, Stand Up", and "I Shot the Sheriff", which appealed to the ear of Eric Clapton. He recorded a cover of the track in 1974 which became a huge American hit, raising Marley's international profile.[23] Many Jamaicans were not keen on the new "improved" reggae sound on Catch A Fire, but the Trenchtown style of Burnin' found fans across both reggae and rock audiences.[21]
During this period, Blackwell gifted his Kingston residence and company headquarters at 56 Hope Road (then known as Island House) to Marley. Housing Tuff Gong Studios, the property became not only Marley's office, but also his home.[21]
The Wailers were scheduled to open 17 shows for the number one black act in the States, Sly and the Family Stone. After 4 shows, the band was fired because they were more popular than the acts they were opening for.[24] The Wailers broke up in 1974 with each of the three main members pursuing solo careers. The reason for the breakup is shrouded in conjecture; some believe that there were disagreements amongst Bunny, Peter, and Bob concerning performances, while others claim that Bunny and Peter simply preferred solo work.

Bob Marley & The Wailers

A crowd of people standing in water and listening to a band perform on stage.
Bob Marley & The Wailers live at Crystal Palace Park during the Uprising Tour
Despite the break-up, Marley continued recording as "Bob Marley & The Wailers". His new backing band included brothers Carlton and Aston "Family Man" Barrett on drums and bass respectively, Junior Marvin and Al Anderson on lead guitar, Tyrone Downie and Earl "Wya" Lindo on keyboards, and Alvin "Seeco" Patterson on percussion. The "I Threes", consisting of Judy Mowatt, Marcia Griffiths, and Marley's wife, Rita, provided backing vocals. In 1975, Marley had his international breakthrough with his first hit outside Jamaica, "No Woman, No Cry", from the Natty Dread album. This was followed by his breakthrough album in the United States, Rastaman Vibration (1976), which spent four weeks on the Billboard Hot 100.[25] In December 1976, two days before "Smile Jamaica", a free concert organised by the Jamaican Prime Minister Michael Manley in an attempt to ease tension between two warring political groups, Marley, his wife, and manager Don Taylor were wounded in an assault by unknown gunmen inside Marley's home. Taylor and Marley's wife sustained serious injuries, but later made full recoveries. Bob Marley received minor wounds in the chest and arm. The shooting was thought to have been politically motivated, as many felt the concert was really a support rally for Manley. Nonetheless, the concert proceeded, and an injured Marley performed as scheduled, two days after the attempt. When asked why, Marley responded, "The people who are trying to make this world worse aren’t taking a day off. How can I?" The members of the group Zap Pow, which had no radical religious or political beliefs, played as Bob Marley's backup band before a festival crowd of 80,000 while members of The Wailers were still missing or in hiding.[26][27]
Marley left Jamaica at the end of 1976, and after a month-long "recovery and writing" sojourn at the site of Chris Blackwell's Compass Point Studios in Nassau, Bahamas, arrived in England, where he spent two years in self-imposed exile. Whilst there he recorded the albums Exodus and Kaya. Exodus stayed on the British album charts for 56 consecutive weeks. It included four UK hit singles: "Exodus", "Waiting in Vain", "Jamming", and "One Love" (a rendition of Curtis Mayfield's hit, "People Get Ready"). During his time in London, he was arrested and received a conviction for possession of a small quantity of cannabis.[28] In 1978, Marley returned to Jamaica and performed at another political concert, the One Love Peace Concert, again in an effort to calm warring parties. Near the end of the performance, by Marley's request, Michael Manley (leader of then-ruling People's National Party) and his political rival Edward Seaga (leader of the opposing Jamaica Labour Party), joined each other on stage and shook hands.[29]
Under the name Bob Marley and the Wailers eleven albums were released, four live albums and seven studio albums. The releases included Babylon by Bus, a double live album with thirteen tracks, was released in 1978 and received critical acclaim. This album, and specifically the final track "Jamming" with the audience in a frenzy, captured the intensity of Marley's live performances.[30]
"Marley wasn’t singing about how peace could come easily to the World but rather how hell on Earth comes too easily to too many. His songs were his memories; he had lived with the wretched, he had seen the downpressers and those whom they pressed down."
Survival, a defiant and politically charged album, was released in 1979. Tracks such as "Zimbabwe", "Africa Unite", "Wake Up and Live", and "Survival" reflected Marley's support for the struggles of Africans. His appearance at the Amandla Festival in Boston in July 1979 showed his strong opposition to South African apartheid, which he already had shown in his song "War" in 1976. In early 1980, he was invited to perform at the 17 April celebration of Zimbabwe's Independence Day. Uprising (1980) was Bob Marley's final studio album, and is one of his most religious productions; it includes "Redemption Song" and "Forever Loving Jah".[32] Confrontation, released posthumously in 1983, contained unreleased material recorded during Marley's lifetime, including the hit "Buffalo Soldier" and new mixes of singles previously only available in Jamaica.[33]

Discography

Tours

  • Apr–Jul 1973: Catch a Fire Tour (England, USA)
  • Oct–Nov 1973: Burnin' Tour (USA, England)
  • Jun–Jul 1975: Natty Dread Tour (USA, Canada, England)
  • Apr–Jul 1976: Rastaman Vibration Tour (USA, Canada, Germany, Sweden, Netherlands, France, England, Wales)
  • May–Jun 1977: Exodus Tour (France, Belgium, Netherlands, Germany, Sweden, Denmark, England)
  • May–Aug 1978: Kaya Tour (USA, Canada, England, France, Spain, Sweden, Denmark, Norway, Netherlands, Belgium)
  • Apr–May 1979: Babylon by Bus Tour (Japan, New Zealand, Australia, Hawaii)
  • Oct 1979–Jan 1980: Survival Tour (USA, Canada, Trinidad/Tobago, Bahamas, Gabon)
  • May–Sep 1980: Uprising Tour (Switzerland, Germany, France, Norway, Sweden, Denmark, Belgium, Netherlands, Italy, Spain, Ireland, England, Scotland, Wales, USA)

Sound samples

Religion

Rastafari movement
Flag of Ethiopia (1897).svg
Main doctrines
Jah · Afrocentrism · Ital · Zion · Cannabis use
Central figures
Queen of Sheba · King Solomon · Haile Selassie · Marcus Garvey · Leonard Howell · Jesus · God
Key scriptures
Bible · Kebra Nagast · The Promise Key · Holy Piby · My Life and Ethiopia's Progress · Royal Parchment Scroll of Black Supremacy
Branches and festivals
Mansions · United States · Shashamane · Grounation Day
Notable individuals
Bob Marley · Peter Tosh · Walter Rodney · Mutabaruka · Benjamin Zephaniah
See also:
Vocabulary · Persecution · Dreadlocks · Reggae · Ethiopian Christianity · Index of Rastafari articles
This box: view·talk·edit
Bob Marley was a member of the Rastafari movement, whose culture was a key element in the development of reggae. Bob Marley became an ardent proponent of Rastafari, taking their music out of the socially deprived areas of Jamaica and onto the international music scene. He once gave the following response, which was typical, to a question put to him during a recorded interview:
  • Interviewer: "Can you tell the people what it means being a Rastafarian?"
  • Bob: "I would say to the people, Be still, and know that His Imperial Majesty, Emperor Haile Selassie of Ethiopia is the Almighty. Now, the Bible seh so, Babylon newspaper seh so, and I and I the children seh so. Yunno? So I don't see how much more reveal our people want. Wha' dem want? a white God, well God come black. True true."[34]
As observant Rastafari practice Ital, a diet that shuns meat, Marley was a vegetarian.[35] According to his biographers, he affiliated with the Twelve Tribes Mansion. He was in the denomination known as "Tribe of Joseph", because he was born in February (each of the twelve sects being composed of members born in a different month). He signified this in his album liner notes, quoting the portion from Genesis that includes Jacob's blessing to his son Joseph. Marley was baptised by the Archbishop of the Ethiopian Orthodox Church in Kingston, Jamaica, on 4 November 1980.[36][37]

Wife and children

Bob Marley had a number of children: three with his wife Rita, two adopted from Rita's previous relationships, and several others with different women. The Bob Marley official website acknowledges eleven children.
Those listed on the official site are:
  1. Sharon, born 23 November 1964, to Rita in previous relationship
  2. Cedella born 23 August 1967, to Rita
  3. David "Ziggy", born 17 October 1968, to Rita
  4. Stephen, born 20 April 1972, to Rita
  5. Robert "Robbie", born 16 May 1972, to Pat Williams
  6. Rohan, born 19 May 1972, to Janet Hunt
  7. Karen, born 1973 to Janet Bowen
  8. Stephanie, born 17 August 1974; according to Cedella Booker she was the daughter of Rita and a man called Ital with whom Rita had an affair; nonetheless she was acknowledged as Bob's daughter
  9. Julian, born 4 June 1975, to Lucy Pounder
  10. Ky-Mani, born 26 February 1976, to Anita Belnavis
  11. Damian, born 21 July 1978, to Cindy Breakspeare
Makeda was born on 30 May 1981, to Yvette Crichton, after Marley's death.[38] lists her as Marley's child, but she is not listed as such on the Bob Marley official website.
Various websites, for example,[39] also list Imani Carole, born 22 May 1963 to Cheryl Murray; but she does not appear on the official Bob Marley website.[38]

Final years

Marley perforning in at Dalymount Park in the late 1970s

Illness

At the start of the European tour, Marley injured his toe playing football. In July 1977, he was found to have acral lentiginous melanoma, a form of malignant melanoma.[40] Despite his illness, he wished to continue touring and was in the process of scheduling a world tour in 1980. The intention was for Inner Circle to be his opening act on the tour but after their lead singer Jacob Miller died in Jamaica in March 1980 after returning from a scouting mission in Brazil this was no longer mentioned.[41] The album Uprising was released in May 1980 (produced by Chris Blackwell), on which Redemption Song is particularly considered to be about Marley coming to terms with his mortality.[42] The band completed a major tour of Europe, where they played their biggest concert, to a hundred thousand people in Milan. After the tour Marley went to America, where he performed two shows at Madison Square Garden as part of the Uprising Tour. Shortly afterwards, his health deteriorated and he became very ill; the cancer had spread throughout his body. The rest of the tour was canceled and Marley sought treatment at the Bavarian clinic of Josef Issels, where he received a controversial type of cancer therapy partly based on avoidance of certain foods, drinks, and other substances. After fighting the cancer without success for eight months, Marley boarded a plane for his home in Jamaica.[43]

Death

While flying home from Germany to Jamaica, in acceptance that he was going to die, Marley's vital functions worsened. After landing in Miami, Florida, he was taken to hospital for immediate medical attention. He died at Cedars of Lebanon Hospital in Miami (now University of Miami Hospital) on the morning of 11 May 1981, at the age of 36. The spread of melanoma to his lungs and brain caused his death. His final words to his son Ziggy were "Money can't buy life".[44] Marley received a state funeral in Jamaica on 21 May 1981, which combined elements of Ethiopian Orthodoxy and Rastafari tradition.[45] He was buried in a chapel near his birthplace with his red Gibson Les Paul (some accounts say it was a Fender Stratocaster).[46]
On May 21, 1981, Jamaican Prime Minister Edward Seaga delivered the final funeral eulogy to Marley, declaring:
His voice was an omnipresent cry in our electronic world. His sharp features, majestic looks, and prancing style a vivid etching on the landscape of our minds. Bob Marley was never seen. He was an experience which left an indelible imprint with each encounter. Such a man cannot be erased from the mind. He is part of the collective consciousness of the nation.[47]

Global legacy

Bob Marley was the Third World’s first pop superstar. He was the man who introduced the world to the mystic power of reggae. He was a true rocker at heart, and as a songwriter, he brought the lyrical force of Bob Dylan, the personal charisma of John Lennon, and the essential vocal stylings of Smokey Robinson into one voice.
Jann Wenner, at Marley’s 1994 posthumous introduction into the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame [48]
In 1999 Time magazine chose Bob Marley & The Wailers' Exodus as the greatest album of the 20th century.[49] In 2001, he was posthumously awarded the Grammy Lifetime Achievement Award, and a feature-length documentary about his life, Rebel Music, won various awards at the Grammys. With contributions from Rita, The Wailers, and Marley's lovers and children, it also tells much of the story in his own words.[50] A statue was inaugurated, next to the national stadium on Arthur Wint Drive in Kingston to commemorate him. In 2006, the State of New York renamed a portion of Church Avenue from Remsen Avenue to East 98th Street in the East Flatbush section of Brooklyn "Bob Marley Boulevard".[51]
Internationally, Marley’s message also continues to reverberate amongst various indigenous communities. For instance, the Aboriginal people of Australia continue to burn a sacred flame to honor his memory in Sydney’s Victoria Park, while members of the Native American Hopi and Havasupai tribe consider Marley to be the fulfillment of an ancient prophecy.[52] Additionally, for many in Nepal, Marley is considered to be an incarnation of the Hindu God Vishnu.[52]

Awards and honours

A five pointed pink star inlaid in the sidewalk with Bob Marley written on it.
Marley's star on the Hollywood Walk of Fame

Film adaptation(s)

In February 2008, director Martin Scorsese announced his intention to produce a documentary movie on Marley. The film was set to be released on 6 February 2010, on what would have been Marley's 65th birthday.[57] Recently, however, Scorsese dropped out due to scheduling problems. He is being replaced by Jonathan Demme.[58]
In March 2008, The Weinstein Company announced its plans to produce a biopic of Bob Marley, based on the book No Woman No Cry: My Life With Bob Marley by Rita Marley. Rudy Langlais will produce the script by Lizzie Borden and Rita Marley will be executive producer.[59]

See also

Notes and references

  1. ^ "2007 Pop Conference Bios/Abstracts". Experience Music Project and Science Fiction Museum and Hall of Fame. 2007. http://www.empsfm.org/education/index.asp?categoryID=26&ccID=127&xPopConfBioID=784&year=2007. 
  2. ^ "Bob Marley". Rock and Roll Hall of Fame. http://www.rockhall.com/inductee/bob-marley. Retrieved 29 December 2010. 
  3. ^ "Bob Marley". Encyclopædia Britannica. 2006. 
  4. ^ Miller, Doug (26 February 2007). "Concert Series: 'No Woman, No Cry'". web.BobMarley.com. http://web.bobmarley.com/news/article.jsp?ymd=20070226&contentid=3540. Retrieved 3 October 2009. 
  5. ^ Newcomb, Peter. "Top Earners for 2004". Forbes. p. 9. http://www.forbes.com/lists/2004/10/25/cx_2004deadcelebtears_9.html. Retrieved 30 November 2008. 
  6. ^ "Rolling in the money". iAfrica. http://entertainment.iafrica.com/features/1051960.htm. Retrieved 30 November 2008. 
  7. ^ Moskowitz 2007, p. 1
  8. ^ Moskowitz 2007, p. 9
  9. ^ Moskowitz 2007, p. 2
  10. ^ Moskowitz 2007, p. 4
  11. ^ Webley, Bishop Derek (10 May 2008). "One world, one love, one Bob Marley". Birmingham Post. Trinity Mirror. http://www.birminghampost.net/comment/birmingham-columnists/more-columnists/2008/05/10/bishop-webley-one-world-one-love-one-bob-marley-65233-20891539/. Retrieved 15 June 2008. 
  12. ^ "Religion and Ethics: Rastafari - Bob Marley". BBC. http://www.bbc.co.uk/religion/religions/rastafari/people/bobmarley.shtml. 
  13. ^ Middleton 2000, pp. 181–198
  14. ^ Ankeny, Jason. "Bob Marley - Biography". Allmusic. http://www.allmusic.com/artist/p2907. Retrieved 15 June 2008. 
  15. ^ "The Beverley Label and Leslie Kong: Music Business". bobmarley.com. Archived from the original on 21 June 2006. http://web.archive.org/web/20060621034903/http://www.bobmarley.com/life/musicbusiness/beverley.html. 
  16. ^ "The Wailers'Biography". Vital Spot. http://www.vitalspot.com/TheWailers/Biography.html. Retrieved 1 October 2009. [dead link]
  17. ^ White, Timothy (25 June 1981). "Bob Marley: 1945-1981". Rolling Stone. Jann Wenner. http://www.rollingstone.com/news/story/6879720/bob_marley_19451981. 
  18. ^ Moskowtz, David Vlado (2007). The Words and Music of Bob Marley. Westport, Connecticut. p. 16. ISBN 0275989356, ISBN 9780275989354.
  19. ^ a b c McKinley, Jesse (19 December 2002). "Pre-reggae tape of Bob Marley is found and put on auction". The New York Times (The New York Times Company). http://query.nytimes.com/gst/fullpage.html?res=9803E2DD133DF93AA25751C1A9649C8B63. Retrieved 4 January 2009. 
  20. ^ Muir, Hugh (27 October 2006). "Blue plaque marks flats that put Marley on road to fame". London: The Guardian. http://www.guardian.co.uk/uk/2006/oct/27/musicnews.arts. Retrieved 7 September 2010. 
  21. ^ a b c d e f Hagerman, Brent (February 2005). "Chris Blackwell: Savvy Svengali". Exclaim.ca. http://exclaim.ca/Features/Timeline/chris_blackwell-savvy_svengalil. Retrieved 2010-12-29. 
  22. ^ [Quoted in the liner notes to 2001 reissue of Catch a Fire, written by Richard Williams]
  23. ^ "I Shot the Sheriff". Rolling Stone. Jann Wenner. 9 December 2004. http://www.rollingstone.com/news/story/6596288/i_shot_the_sheriff/print. Retrieved 3 October 2009. 
  24. ^ "Bob Marley Biography". admin. 9 August 2010. http://bobmarleytshirts.net/bob-marley-biography/. Retrieved November 2010. 
  25. ^ "Bob Marley Bio". niceup.com. http://www.niceup.com/bmbio.html. Retrieved 3 October 2009. 
  26. ^ "The shooting of a Wailer". Rolling Stone. Jann Wenner. 13 January 1997. http://www.rollingstone.com/news/story/6879667/the_shooting_of_a_wailer. Retrieved 2 October 2009. 
  27. ^ Walker, Jeff (1980) on the cover of Zap Pow's LP Reggae Rules. Los Angeles: Rhino Records.
  28. ^ "A Timeline of Bob Marley's Career". Thirdfield.com. http://www.thirdfield.com/new/timeline.html. Retrieved 3 October 2009. 
  29. ^ "One Love Peace Concert". Everything2.com. 24 May 2002. http://www.everything2.com/index.pl?node_id=1307397. Retrieved 3 October 2009. 
  30. ^ White, Timothy (28 December 1978). "Babylon by Bus review". Rolling Stone. Jann Wenner. http://www.rollingstone.com/reviews/album/301860. Retrieved 3 October 2009. 
  31. ^ Henke 2006, p. 61
  32. ^ Morris, Chris (16 October 1980). "Uprising review". Rolling Stone. Jann Wenner. http://www.rollingstone.com/reviews/album/103460/review/6068123?utm_source=Rhapsody&utm_medium=CDreview. Retrieved 3 October 2009. 
  33. ^ Schruers, Fred (1 September 1983). "Confrontation review". Rolling Stone. Jann Wenner. http://www.rollingstone.com/artists/bobmarley/albums/album/232098/review/6067472/confrontation. Retrieved 3 October 2009. 
  34. ^ Davis, Steven, Bob Marley: the biography (1983) p. 115
  35. ^ "Bob Marley". The International Vegetarian Union. http://www.ivu.org/people/music/marley.html. Retrieved 16 December 2009. 
  36. ^ "The Ethiopian Orthodox Church & Bob Marley's Baptism And The Church". Jamaicans.com. http://www.jamaicans.com/culture/rasta/ethiopian_church.shtml. 
  37. ^ "Bob Marley's Baptism in Ethiopian Orthodox Church". Rastafarispeaks.com. http://www.rastafarispeaks.com/cgi-bin/forum/archive1/config.pl?noframes;read=47421. 
  38. ^ a b Dixon, Meredith. "Lovers and Children of the Natural Mystic: The Story of Bob Marley, Women and their Children". The Dread Library. http://debate.uvm.edu/dreadlibrary/dixon.html. Retrieved 21 June 2007. 
  39. ^ "Bob Marley's Children". Chelsea's Entertainment Reviews. http://chelseasreviews.wordpress.com/2006/12/07/bob-marleys-children/. 
  40. ^ Newman, Sara (27 October 2006). "When Bob Marley joined the Bloomsbury set". The Independet. UK: Independent News & Media. http://www.independent.co.uk/news/uk/this-britain/when-bob-marley-joined-the-bloomsbury-set-421831.html. Retrieved 4 October 2009. 
  41. ^ Slater, Russ (6 August 2010). "The Day Bob Marley Played Football in Brazil". Sounds and Colours. http://www.soundsandcolours.com/articles/brazil/the-day-bob-marley-played-football-in-brazil/. Retrieved 6 August 2010. 
  42. ^ [1]
  43. ^ "His story: The life and legacy of Bob Marley". web.bobmarley.com. http://web.bobmarley.com/story/?storypage=7. Retrieved 4 October 2009. 
  44. ^ Steffens, Roger. "Bob Marley Chronology 1945-1981". http://www.reggae.com/artists/bob_marley/chronology.htm. Retrieved 26 October 2006. [dead link]
  45. ^ Moskowitz 2007, p. 116
  46. ^ "Bob Marley". Find a Grave. 1 January 2001. http://www.findagrave.com/cgi-bin/fg.cgi?page=gr&GRid=1732. Retrieved 16 April 2009. 
  47. ^ Henke 2006, p. 58
  48. ^ Henke 2006, p. 4
  49. ^ "The Best Of The Century". Time (Time Inc.). 31 December 1999. http://www.time.com/time/printout/0,8816,993039,00.html. Retrieved 16 April 2009. 
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