26 September 2009

Pembantaian Nanking

Pembantaian di Nanking atau Pembantaian Nanjing, yang juga dikenal sebagai Rape of Nanking, mengacu pada periode enam minggu setelah Jepang menangkap dari Nanking, kemudian ibu kota Republik Cina, pada Desember 9, 1937. During this period, hundreds of thousands of civilians were murdered and 20,000-80,000 women were raped [ 1 ] by soldiers of the Imperial Japanese Army . [ 2 ] [ 3 ] The massacre remains a contentious political issue, as various aspects of it have been disputed by some historical revisionists and Japanese nationalists , [ 3 ] who have claimed that the massacre has been either exaggerated or wholly fabricated for propaganda purposes. Selama periode ini, ratusan ribu rakyat sipil dibunuh dan perempuan diperkosa 20,000-80,000 [1] oleh prajurit Angkatan Darat Kekaisaran Jepang. [2] [3] Pembantaian masih menjadi isu perdebatan politik, seperti berbagai aspek itu telah diperdebatkan oleh beberapa revisionis sejarah dan jepang nasionalis, [3] yang telah mengklaim bahwa pembantaian telah dibesar-besarkan atau seluruhnya baik direkayasa untuk maksud propaganda. As a result of nationalist efforts to deny or rationalize the crimes, the massacre remains a stumbling block in Sino-Japanese relations , as well as Japanese relations with other Asia-Pacific nations such as South Korea and the Philippines. Sebagai hasil dari usaha-usaha nasionalis untuk menolak atau merasionalisasikan kejahatan, pembantaian tetap menjadi batu sandungan dalam hubungan Sino-Jepang, serta hubungan Jepang dengan negara-negara Asia-Pasifik seperti Korea Selatan dan Filipina.

Estimates of the death toll vary widely. Perkiraan kematian bervariasi. Aside from the absence of accurate, comprehensive records of the killings, other contributors to the wide variance in estimates of the death toll include differences in definition of the geographical area, time period and nature of the killings to be counted. Terlepas dari ketidakhadiran yang akurat, komprehensif catatan dari pembunuhan, kontributor-kontributor lainnya untuk variasi yang luas perkiraan jumlah korban tewas termasuk perbedaan dalam definisi wilayah geografis, periode waktu dan sifat dari pembunuhan untuk dihitung. The Nanking Massacre can be defined narrowly to count only those killings happening within the Nanking Safety Zone , more broadly to include killings in the immediate environs of Nanking, or even more broadly to include the six counties around Nanjing, known as the Nanjing Special Municipality. Pembantaian di Nanking dapat didefinisikan secara sempit hanya menghitung pembunuhan terjadi dalam Nanking Safety Zone, lebih luas termasuk pembunuhan dalam lingkungan segera Nanking, atau bahkan lebih luas untuk mencakup enam kabupaten di Nanjing, yang dikenal sebagai Kota Khusus di Nanjing. Similarly, the time period of the massacre can be limited to the six weeks following the fall of Nanking or it can be defined more broadly to include killings from the time the Japanese Army entered Jiangsu province in mid-November until late March 1938. Demikian pula, jangka waktu pembantaian dapat terbatas pada enam minggu setelah jatuhnya Nanking atau dapat didefinisikan secara lebih luas termasuk pembunuhan dari waktu tentara Jepang masuk Jiangsu provinsi di pertengahan bulan November sampai akhir Maret 1938. Variations in estimates based on the nature of the killings revolve around the question of whether the killings of captured Chinese soldiers and suspected guerrillas constituted legitimate executions. Variasi dalam perkiraan berdasarkan sifat pembunuhan berkisar di seputar pertanyaan apakah pembunuhan ditangkap tentara Cina dan gerilyawan yang diduga merupakan eksekusi sah.

The International Military Tribunal of the Far East estimates 260,000 casualties; China's official estimate is 300,000 casualties, based on the evaluation of the Nanking War Crimes Tribunal . Di Pengadilan Militer Internasional Timur Jauh dari perkiraan 260.000 korban; cina perkiraan resmi adalah 300.000 korban, berdasarkan evaluasi dari Pengadilan Kejahatan Perang Nanking. Japanese historians estimate a lower death toll, in the vicinity of 100,000-200,000. Jepang sejarawan memperkirakan jumlah korban tewas lebih rendah, di sekitar 100,000-200,000. Some claim the existence of only 40,000 deaths or even deny that a widespread, systematic massacre occurred at all, claiming that any deaths were either justified militarily, accidental or isolated incidents of unauthorized atrocities. Beberapa menyatakan adanya kematian hanya 40.000 atau bahkan menyangkal bahwa yang tersebar luas, pembantaian sistematis terjadi di semua, mengklaim bahwa setiap kematian entah dibenarkan militer, kecelakaan atau insiden kekejaman tidak sah. These negationists claim that the characterization of the incident as a large-scale, systematic massacre was fabricated for the purpose of political propaganda. [ 4 ] [ 5 ] Negationists ini mengklaim bahwa karakterisasi insiden itu sebagai skala besar, pembantaian sistematis mengarang untuk tujuan propaganda politik. [4] [5]

While the Japanese government has acknowledged the crimes committed by the Imperial Japanese Army after the fall of Nanking, [ 6 ] some Japanese officials have argued that the death toll was military in nature and that no such crimes ever occurred. Sementara pemerintah Jepang juga telah mengakui kejahatan yang dilakukan oleh Tentara Kekaisaran Jepang setelah jatuhnya Nanking, [6] beberapa pejabat Jepang menyatakan bahwa jumlah korban tewas itu militer di alam dan bahwa kejahatan semacam itu tidak pernah terjadi. Denial of the massacre, and a divergent array of revisionist accounts of the killings, has become a staple of Japanese nationalism . [ 7 ] In Japan, public opinion of the massacres varies, and few deny the occurrence of the massacre outright. [ 7 ] Nonetheless, recurring attempts by negationists to promote a revisionist history of the incident have created controversy that periodically reverberates in the international media, particularly in China, South Korea, and other East Asian nations. [ 8 ] Penolakan pembantaian, dan sebuah array divergen rekening revisionis pembunuhan, telah menjadi pokok dari nasionalisme Jepang. [7] Di Jepang, pendapat publik pembantaian bervariasi, dan hanya sedikit menyangkal terjadinya pembantaian langsung. [7] Meskipun demikian, upaya berulang negationists untuk mempromosikan sebuah sejarah revisionis insiden telah menciptakan kontroversi yang bergema secara berkala di media internasional, khususnya di Cina, Korea Selatan, dan negara-negara Asia Timur lainnya. [8]
Contents Isi
[hide]

* 1 Military situation Militer 1 situasi
o 1.1 Relocation of the Chinese capital 1,1 Pemindahan ibukota Cina
o 1.2 Strategy for the defense of Nanking 1,2 Strategi pertahanan Nanking
* 2 Approach of the Imperial Japanese Army Pendekatan 2 Tentara Kekaisaran Jepang
o 2.1 Japanese war crimes on the march to Nanking 2,1 kejahatan perang Jepang di perjalanan ke Nanking
o 2.2 Flight of Chinese civilians Penerbangan dari 2,2 warga sipil Cina
o 2.3 Establishment of the Nanking Safety Zone Pembentukan 2,3 Nanking Safety Zone
o 2.4 Prince Asaka appointed as commander Pangeran Asaka 2,4 ditunjuk sebagai komandan
* 3 Battle of Nanking 3 Pertempuran Nanking
o 3.1 Siege of the city 3,1 Pengepungan kota
o 3.2 Demand for surrender Permintaan 3,2 menyerah
o 3.3 Assault and capture of Nanking Assault 3,3 dan penangkapan Nanking
o 3.4 Pursuit and mopping-up operations 3,4 Pursuit dan operasi-operasi
* 4 The massacre 4 Pembantaian
o 4.1 Rape 4,1 Perkosaan
o 4.2 Murder of civilians 4,2 Pembunuhan warga sipil
o 4.3 Execution of Chinese POWs Pelaksanaan cina 4,3 POW
o 4.4 Theft and arson Pencurian dan pembakaran 4,4
o 4.5 The Nanking Safety Zone and the role of foreigners 4.5 Nanking Safety Zone dan peran asing
* 5 Matsui's reaction to the massacre 5 Matsui reaksi pembantaian
* 6 End of the massacre 6 Akhir pembantaian
* 7 Recall of Matsui and Asaka 7 Ingatlah dari Matsui dan Asaka
* 8 Death toll estimates Death toll 8 perkiraan
o 8.1 Range and duration Range dan durasi 8,1
o 8.2 Various estimates Berbagai perkiraan 8,2
* 9 War crimes tribunals Tribunal kejahatan Perang 9
o 9.1 Grant of immunity to Prince Asaka Hibah 9,1 kekebalan kepada Pangeran Asaka
o 9.2 Evidence and testimony Bukti dan kesaksian 9,2
o 9.3 Matsui's defense 9,3 pertahanan Matsui
o 9.4 Verdict 9,4 Putusan
o 9.5 Sentence Kalimat 9,5
* 10 Memorials 10 kenangan
o 10.1 Nanking Massacre Memorial Hall Pembantaian Nanking 10,1 Memorial Hall
o 10.2 Photograph exhibit Foto 10,2 pameran
o 10.3 John Rabe House 10,3 John Rabe House
* 11 Controversy 11 Kontroversi
o 11.1 Cold War 11,1 Perang Dingin
o 11.2 Debate in Japan Perdebatan di Jepang 11,2
o 11.3 Apology and condolences by the prime minister and emperor of Japan 11,3 Apologi dan belasungkawa oleh perdana menteri dan kaisar Jepang
o 11.4 Denial of the massacre by the Liberal Democratic Party of Japan Penolakan 11,4 pembantaian oleh Partai Demokrat Liberal Jepang
* 12 Legacy 12 Legacy
o 12.1 Effect on international relations 12,1 Efek pada hubungan internasional
o 12.2 As a component of national identity 12,2 Sebagai komponen identitas nasional
o 12.3 Japan 12,3 Jepang
o 12.4 China 12,4 cina
* 13 In the media 13 Pada media
o 13.1 Novels 13,1 Novel
o 13.2 Non-fiction 13,2 Non-fiksi
o 13.3 Films 13,3 Film
o 13.4 TV series 13,4 TV series
o 13.5 Records 13,5 Records
* 14 Other massacres 14 Lainnya pembantaian
* 15 See also 15 Lihat juga
* 16 References 16 Referensi
* 17 Further reading Bacaan lebih lanjut 17
* 18 External links 18 Pranala luar

[ edit ] Military situation [Sunting] Militer situasi

Following the Mukden Incident in 1931, Japan began its invasion of Manchuria. Menyusul Insiden Mukden pada 1931, Jepang memulai invasi Manchuria. Because the Communists and the Kuomintang were engaged in the Chinese Civil War they were distracted from mounting a concerted defense against the Japanese who swiftly captured major Chinese cities in the northeast. Karena Komunis dan Kuomintang yang terlibat dalam Perang Sipil Cina mereka teralihkan dari mounting terpadu pertahanan melawan Jepang yang cepat ditangkap cina besar kota-kota di timur laut. In 1937 the Chinese communists and nationalists agreed to form a united front. Pada tahun 1937 Cina komunis dan kaum nasionalis sepakat untuk membentuk front persatuan. The Kuomintang constructed an all-out defense against the Japanese threat. Kuomintang dibangun habis-habisan pertahanan terhadap ancaman Jepang. This Chinese army was poorly trained and poorly equipped: some regiments were armed primarily with swords and hand grenades and few had weaponry to counter the Japanese tanks . Tentara Cina ini tidak terlatih dan tidak dilengkapi: beberapa resimen terutama dipersenjatai dengan pedang dan granat tangan dan beberapa memiliki persenjataan Jepang untuk melawan tank.

Nonetheless, in August 1937, the Japanese army was met with strong resistance and suffered heavy casualties in the Battle of Shanghai , making it clear that conquest of China would take years rather than months. Meskipun demikian, pada bulan Agustus 1937, tentara Jepang disambut dengan perlawanan yang kuat dan menderita banyak korban dalam Pertempuran Shanghai, sehingga jelas bahwa penaklukan Cina akan mengambil tahun daripada bulan. The Battle of Shanghai was bloody as both sides faced attrition in urban hand-to-hand combat. The Battle of Shanghai itu berdarah karena kedua belah pihak yang dihadapi di daerah perkotaan karena gesekan tangan ke tangan pertempuran.

By mid-November the Japanese had captured Shanghai with the help of naval bombardment. Pada pertengahan November Jepang telah menangkap Shanghai dengan bantuan pemboman angkatan laut. The General Staff Headquarters in Tokyo initially decided not to expand the war due to heavy casualties incurred and the low morale of the troops. Staf Umum Markas Besar di Tokyo awalnya memutuskan untuk tidak memperluas perang karena banyak korban yang terjadi dan rendahnya moral pasukan. However, on December 1, headquarters ordered the Central China Area Army and the 10th Army to capture Nanking, then-capital of the Republic of China. Namun, pada 1 Desember markas memerintahkan Angkatan Darat Kawasan Cina Tengah dan Angkatan Darat ke-10 untuk menangkap Nanking, kemudian-ibukota Republik Cina.
[ edit ] Relocation of the Chinese capital [Sunting] Pemindahan ibukota Cina

After losing the Battle of Shanghai, Chiang Kai-shek knew the fall of Nanking would be simply a matter of time. Setelah kehilangan Pertempuran Shanghai, Chiang Kai-shek tahu jatuhnya Nanking akan hanya masalah waktu. He and his staff realized that he could not risk annihilation of their elite troops in a symbolic but hopeless defense of the capital. Ia dan stafnya menyadari bahwa ia tidak bisa mengambil risiko penghancuran pasukan elit mereka secara simbolis, tetapi harapan pertahanan ibukota. In order to preserve the army for future battles, most of them were withdrawn. Dalam rangka untuk mempertahankan pasukan untuk pertempuran di masa depan, sebagian besar dari mereka ditarik. Chiang Kai-shek's strategy was to follow the suggestion of his German advisers to draw the Japanese army deep into China utilizing China's vast territory as a defensive strength. Chiang Kai-shek strategi adalah mengikuti saran dari penasihat Jerman untuk menarik tentara Jepang ke Cina dalam memanfaatkan wilayah yang luas di Cina sebagai kekuatan defensif. Chiang planned to fight a protracted war of attrition by wearing down the Japanese in the hinterland of China. [ 9 ] Chiang direncanakan untuk melawan perang berkepanjangan karena gesekan dengan mengenakan ke Jepang di pedalaman Cina. [9]

Leaving General Tang Shengzhi in charge of the city for the Battle of Nanking, Chiang and many of his advisors flew to Wuhan , where they stayed until it was attacked in 1938 . Meninggalkan Jenderal Tang Shengzhi bertanggung jawab atas kota untuk Pertempuran Nanking, Chiang dan banyak dari penasihat terbang ke Wuhan, di mana mereka tinggal sampai akhirnya diserang pada tahun 1938.
[ edit ] Strategy for the defense of Nanking [Sunting] Strategi untuk pertahanan Nanking

In a press release to foreign reporters, Tang Shengzhi announced the city would not surrender and would fight to the death. Dalam siaran pers kepada wartawan asing, Tang Shengzhi mengumumkan kota tidak akan menyerah dan akan bertempur sampai mati. Tang gathered about 100,000 soldiers, largely untrained, including Chinese troops who had participated in the Battle of Shanghai . Tang berkumpul sekitar 100.000 prajurit, sebagian besar tidak terlatih, termasuk tentara Cina yang telah berpartisipasi dalam Pertempuran Shanghai. To prevent civilians from fleeing the city, he ordered troops to guard the port, as instructed by Chiang Kai-shek . Untuk mencegah dari warga sipil melarikan diri dari kota, ia memerintahkan pasukan untuk menjaga pelabuhan, seperti yang diperintahkan oleh Chiang Kai-shek. The defense force blocked roads, destroyed boats, and burnt nearby villages, preventing widespread evacuation. Angkatan bersenjata memblokir jalan-jalan, menghancurkan perahu, dan dibakar desa-desa terdekat, mencegah meluas evakuasi.

The Chinese government left for relocation on December 1 , and the president left on December 7 , leaving the fate of Nanking to an International Committee led by John Rabe . Pemerintah Cina kiri untuk relokasi pada Desember 1, dan presiden kiri pada Desember 7, meninggalkan nasib Nanking ke Komite Internasional yang dipimpin oleh John Rabe.

The defense plan fell apart quickly. Rencana pertahanan runtuh dengan cepat. Those defending the city encountered Chinese troops fleeing from previous defeats such as the Battle of Shanghai , running from the advancing Japanese army. Mereka yang mempertahankan kota ditemui tentara Cina yang melarikan diri dari kekalahan sebelumnya seperti Pertempuran Shanghai, lari dari tentara Jepang maju. This did nothing to help the morale of the defenders. Ini tidak melakukan apa pun untuk membantu moral para pembela.
[ edit ] Approach of the Imperial Japanese Army [Sunting] Pendekatan Angkatan Darat Kekaisaran Jepang
[ edit ] Japanese war crimes on the march to Nanking [Sunting] kejahatan perang Jepang di perjalanan ke Nanking
One of articles on the " Contest to kill 100 people using a sword " published in the Tokyo Nichi Nichi Shimbun . Salah satu artikel di "Contest untuk membunuh 100 orang yang menggunakan pedang" diterbitkan di Tokyo Nichi Nichi Shimbun. The headline reads, "'Incredible Record' (in the Contest to Cut Down 100 People) —Mukai 106 – 105 Noda—Both 2nd Lieutenants Go Into Extra Innings". [ 10 ] In 2000 Bob Wakabayashi concluded that the contest itself was a fabrication by journalists. [ 11 ] Judul berbunyi, " 'Incredible Record' (dalam Kontes untuk Cut Down 100 Orang)-Mukai 106-105 Kedua Noda-2 Letnan Pergi Ke Ekstra inning". [10] Pada tahun 2000 Bob Wakabayashi menyimpulkan bahwa kontes itu sendiri adalah sebuah rekayasa oleh wartawan. [11]

Although the Nanking Massacre is generally described as having occurred over a six-week period after the fall of Nanking, the crimes committed by the Japanese army were not limited to that period. Meskipun Pembantaian Nanking umumnya digambarkan sebagai telah terjadi selama periode enam minggu setelah jatuhnya Nanking, kejahatan yang dilakukan oleh tentara Jepang tidak terbatas pada masa itu. Many atrocities were reported to have been committed as the Japanese army advanced from Shanghai to Nanking. Banyak kekejaman yang dilaporkan telah dilakukan sebagai tentara Jepang maju dari Shanghai ke Nanking.

In his memoirs, journalist Matsumoto Shigeharu, the Shanghai bureau chief of Domei News Agency, recalled a circulating rumor among his colleagues. Dalam memoarnya, wartawan Shigeharu Matsumoto, kepala biro Shanghai dari Domei News Agency, mengingat desas-desus yang beredar di antara rekan-rekannya. "The reason that the Yanagawa Corps [the 10th Army] is advancing [to Nanking] as rapidly is due to the tacit consent among the officers and men that they could loot and rape as they wish." [ citation needed ] "Alasan bahwa Korps Yanagawa [Angkatan Darat ke-10] adalah maju [ke Nanking] sebagai cepat adalah karena persetujuan diam-diam di antara para perwira dan orang-orang bahwa mereka dapat penjarahan dan perkosaan seperti yang mereka inginkan." [Rujukan?]

Novelist Ishikawa Tatsuzo vividly described how the 16th Division of the Shanghai Expeditionary Force committed atrocities on the march between Shanghai and Nanking in his novel Ikiteiru Heitai [Living Soldiers], which was based on interviews that Tatsuzo conducted with troops in Nanking during January 1938. [ citation needed ] Novelis Ishikawa Tatsuzo dengan jelas menggambarkan bagaimana 16 Divisi dari Shanghai Expeditionary Force melakukan kekejaman di perjalanan antara Shanghai dan Nanking dalam novelnya Ikiteiru Heitai [Hidup Prajurit], yang didasarkan pada wawancara yang dilakukan dengan pasukan Tatsuzo di Nanking selama Januari 1938. [ rujukan?]

Perhaps the most notorious atrocity was a killing contest between two Japanese officers as reported in the Tokyo Nichi Nichi Shimbun and the English language Japan Advertiser . Mungkin yang paling terkenal adalah kekejaman membunuh kontes antara dua perwira Jepang seperti yang dilaporkan di Tokyo Nichi Nichi Shimbun dan bahasa Inggris Pengiklan Jepang. The contest was covered much like a sporting event with regular updates on the score over a series of days. [ 12 ] [ 13 ] In Japan, the veracity of the newspaper article about the contest was the subject of ferocious debate for several decades starting in 1967. [ 14 ] . Kontes ini tertutup seperti sebuah acara olahraga dengan update reguler pada nilai lebih dari serangkaian hari. [12] [13] Di Jepang, kebenaran dari artikel koran tentang kontes adalah subyek perdebatan sengit selama beberapa dekade mulai tahun 1967. [14]. This "contest" is regularly presented as historical fact, for example, in an exhibit at the Nanking Massacre Memorial . Ini "kontes" secara teratur disajikan sebagai fakta sejarah, misalnya, dalam sebuah pameran di Memorial Pembantaian Nanking. The historicity of the event remains disputed in Japan. Historisitas acara tetap diperdebatkan di Jepang. In 2000, Bob Wakabayashi concurred with certain Japanese scholars who had argued that the contest was a concocted story, with the collusion of the soldiers themselves for the purpose of raising the national fighting spirit . [ 11 ] Pada tahun 2000, Bob Wakabayashi sependapat dengan beberapa sarjana Jepang yang telah berpendapat bahwa kontes adalah sebuah cerita mengarang, dengan kolusi para prajurit itu sendiri untuk tujuan meningkatkan semangat juang nasional. [11]
[ edit ] Flight of Chinese civilians [Sunting] Penerbangan sipil Cina

As the Japanese army drew closer to Nanking, Chinese civilians fled the city in droves. Ketika tentara Jepang semakin dekat ke Nanking, Cina warga sipil melarikan diri dari kota berbondong-bondong. The people of Nanking fled in panic not only because of the dangers of the anticipated battle but also because they feared the deprivation inherent in the scorched earth strategy that the Chinese troops were implementing in the area surrounding the city. [ 15 ] Orang-orang lari Nanking tidak panik hanya karena bahaya pertempuran yang diantisipasi tetapi juga karena mereka takut pada kekurangan yang melekat pada bumi hangus strategi bahwa pasukan Cina melaksanakan di daerah sekitar kota. [15]

On July 31, the GMD had issued a statement that they were determined to turn every Chinese national and every piece of their soil into ash, rather than turn them over to the opponent. Pada 31 Juli yang GMD telah mengeluarkan pernyataan bahwa mereka bertekad untuk mengubah setiap warga negara Cina dan setiap potong tanah mereka menjadi abu, daripada menyerahkannya kepada lawan. The Nanking garrison force set fire to buildings and houses in the areas close to Xiakuan to the north as well as in the environs of the eastern and southern city gates. [ 9 ] Targets within and outside of the city walls—such as military barracks, private homes, the Chinese Ministry of Communication, forests and even entire villages—were burnt to cinders, at an estimated value of 20 to 30 million (1937) US dollars. [ 16 ] [ 17 ] [ 18 ] Garnisun Nanking kekuatan yang membakar gedung-gedung dan rumah-rumah di daerah dekat Xiakuan ke utara dan juga di lingkungan dari timur dan selatan gerbang kota. [9] Target di dalam dan di luar tembok kota-seperti barak militer, rumah-rumah pribadi, maka Kementerian Komunikasi cina, hutan dan bahkan seluruh desa-desa dibakar untuk abu, pada nilai sekitar 20 sampai 30 juta (1937) US dolar. [16] [17] [18]
[ edit ] Establishment of the Nanking Safety Zone [Sunting] Pembentukan Nanking Safety Zone
Main article: Nanking Safety Zone Artikel utama: Nanking Safety Zone

Many Westerners were living in the city at that time, conducting trade or on missionary trips. Banyak orang Barat tinggal di kota pada waktu itu, melakukan perdagangan atau perjalanan misionaris. As the Japanese army approached Nanking, most of them fled the city, leaving 27 foreigners. Ketika tentara Jepang mendekati Nanking, sebagian besar dari mereka melarikan diri dari kota, meninggalkan 27 orang asing. Five of these were journalists who remained in the city a few days after it was captured, leaving the city on December 16. Lima di antaranya wartawan yang tinggal di kota beberapa hari setelah ditangkap, meninggalkan kota pada tanggal 16 Desember. 15 of the remaining 22 foreigners formed a committee, called the International Committee for the Nanking Safety Zone . [ 19 ] German businessman John Rabe was elected as its leader, in part because of his status as a member of the Nazi party and the existence of the German-Japanese bilateral Anti-Comintern Pact . 15 dari yang tersisa 22 orang asing membentuk sebuah komite yang disebut Komite Internasional untuk Nanking Safety Zone. [19] jerman pengusaha John Rabe terpilih sebagai pemimpin, sebagian karena statusnya sebagai anggota Partai Nazi dan adanya Jerman-Jepang bilateral Pakta Anti-Komintern.

The Committee established the Nanking Safety Zone in the western quarter of the city. Membentuk Komite Keselamatan Nanking Zona di kuartal barat kota. The Japanese government had previously agreed not to attack parts of the city that did not contain Chinese military forces, and the members of the International Committee for the Nanking Safety Zone managed to persuade the Chinese government to move their troops out of the area. Pemerintah Jepang sebelumnya telah sepakat untuk tidak menyerang bagian kota yang tidak mengandung kekuatan militer Cina, dan anggota Komite Internasional untuk Zona Keselamatan Nanking berhasil membujuk pemerintah Cina untuk memindahkan pasukan mereka keluar dari daerah itu.

On December 1, 1937, Nanking Mayor Ma Chao-chun ordered all Chinese citizens remaining in Nanking to move into the “Safety Zone”. Pada 1 Desember 1937, Nanking Walikota Ma Chao-chun memerintahkan semua warga negara Cina di Nanking yang tersisa untuk pindah ke "Zona Keamanan". Ma fled the city on December 7, and the International Committee took over as the de facto government of Nanking. Ma melarikan diri dari kota pada tanggal 7 Desember, dan Komite Internasional mengambil alih sebagai de facto pemerintah Nanking.
[ edit ] Prince Asaka appointed as commander [Sunting] Pangeran Asaka ditunjuk sebagai komandan
Prince Yasuhiko Asaka in 1940 Pangeran Yasuhiko Asaka pada tahun 1940

In a memorandum for the palace rolls, Hirohito had singled Prince Asaka out for censure as the one imperial kinsman whose attitude was "not good." Dalam sebuah memorandum untuk gulungan istana, Pangeran Hirohito telah dipilih Asaka keluar untuk mengecam sebagai satu sikap yang sanak kekaisaran itu "tidak baik." He assigned Asaka to Nanking as an opportunity to make amends. [ 20 ] Ia ditugaskan Asaka untuk Nanking sebagai sebuah kesempatan untuk menebus kesalahan. [20]

On December 5, Asaka left Tokyo by plane and arrived at the front three days later. Pada 5 Desember Asaka meninggalkan Tokyo dengan pesawat dan tiba di depan tiga hari kemudian. Asaka met with division commanders, lieutenant-generals Kesago Nakajima and Heisuke Yanagawa , who informed him that the Japanese troops had almost completely surrounded three hundred thousand Chinese troops in the vicinity of Nanking and that preliminary negotiations suggested that the Chinese were ready to surrender. [ 21 ] Asaka bertemu dengan komandan divisi, letnan jenderal Kesago Nakajima dan Heisuke Yanagawa, yang memberitahukan kepadanya bahwa pasukan Jepang hampir sepenuhnya dikelilingi tiga ratus ribu tentara Cina di sekitar Nanking dan bahwa perundingan pendahuluan menyarankan bahwa Cina sudah siap untuk menyerah. [ 21]

Prince Asaka allegedly issued an order to "kill all captives," thus providing official sanction for the crimes which took place during and after the battle. [ 22 ] Some authors record that Prince Asaka signed the order for Japanese soldiers in Nanking to "kill all captives" [ 23 ] Others claim that lieutenant colonel Isamu Chō , Asaka's aide-de-camp , sent this order under the Prince's sign manual without the Prince's knowledge or assent. [ 24 ] However, even if Chō took the initiative on his own, Prince Asaka, who was nominally the officer in charge, gave no orders to stop the carnage. Pangeran Asaka diduga mengeluarkan perintah untuk "membunuh semua tawanan," sehingga pejabat memberikan sanksi atas kejahatan yang terjadi selama dan setelah pertempuran itu. [22] Beberapa penulis mencatat bahwa Pangeran Asaka menandatangani perintah untuk tentara Jepang di Nanking untuk "membunuh semua tawanan "[23] Lain menyatakan bahwa letnan kolonel Isamu Chō, Asaka's aide-de-camp, mengirim perintah ini di bawah tanda Prince Pangeran manual tanpa sepengetahuan atau persetujuan. [24] Namun demikian, kalaupun Chō mengambil inisiatif sendiri, Pangeran Asaka, yang nominal perwira yang bertanggung jawab, tidak memberikan perintah untuk menghentikan pembantaian. When General Matsui arrived in the city four days after the massacre had begun, he issued strict orders that resulted in the eventual end of the massacre. Ketika Jenderal Matsui tiba di kota empat hari setelah pembantaian itu dimulai, ia mengeluarkan perintah tegas bahwa mengakibatkan akhir dari pembantaian.

While the extent of Prince Asaka's responsibility for the massacre remains a matter of debate, the ultimate sanction for the massacre and the crimes committed during the invasion of China were issued in the Emperor Hirohito 's ratification of the Japanese army's proposition to remove the constraints of international law on the treatment of Chinese prisoners on August 5, 1937 . [ 25 ] Sementara sejauh mana Pangeran Asaka yang bertanggung jawab atas pembantaian tetap menjadi bahan perdebatan, yang paling sanksi bagi pembantaian dan kejahatan yang dilakukan selama invasi ke Cina diterbitkan dalam Kaisar Hirohito 's ratifikasi tentara Jepang usul untuk menghilangkan kendala hukum internasional tentang perlakuan terhadap tahanan Cina pada 5 Agustus 1937. [25]
[ edit ] Battle of Nanking [Sunting] Pertempuran Nanking
Main article: Battle of Nanking Artikel utama: Pertempuran Nanking
[ edit ] Siege of the city [Sunting] Pengepungan kota

On December 7 , the Japanese army issued a command to all troops, advising that because occupying a foreign capital was an unprecedented event for the Japanese military, those soldiers who "[commit] any illegal acts", "dishonor the Japanese Army", "loot", or "cause a fire to break out, even because of their carelessness" would be severely punished. [ 26 ] Pada 7 Desember, tentara Jepang mengeluarkan perintah kepada semua pasukan, menyarankan bahwa karena menempati modal asing belum pernah terjadi sebelumnya kegiatan untuk militer Jepang, tentara-tentara yang "[melakukan] tindakan ilegal apapun", "mencemarkan tentara Jepang", " merampok ", atau" menyebabkan kebakaran untuk keluar, bahkan karena kecerobohan mereka "akan dihukum berat. [26]

The Japanese military continued to move forward, breaching the last lines of Chinese resistance, and arriving outside the walled city of Nanking on December 9 . Militer Jepang terus bergerak maju, melanggar baris terakhir perlawanan Cina, dan tiba di luar kota bertembok Nanking pada Desember 9.
[ edit ] Demand for surrender [Sunting] Permintaan untuk menyerah

At noon on December 9, the military dropped leaflets into the city, urging the surrender of Nanking within 24 hours, promising annihilation if refused. [ 27 ] [ 28 ] Pada tengah hari pada 9 Desember, militer menjatuhkan selebaran ke kota, mendesak penyerahan Nanking dalam waktu 24 jam, menjanjikan pembasmian jika menolak. [27] [28]

Meanwhile, members of the International Committee for the Nanking Safety Zone contacted Tang and suggested a plan for three-day cease-fire, during which the Chinese troops could withdraw without fighting while the Japanese troops would stay in their present position. Sementara itu, anggota Komite Internasional untuk Zona Keselamatan Nanking dihubungi Tang dan mengusulkan suatu rencana selama tiga hari gencatan senjata, yang selama itu tentara Cina dapat menarik diri tanpa berperang sedangkan pasukan Jepang akan tetap dalam posisi sekarang mereka.

General Tang agreed with this proposal if the International Committee could acquire permission of Generalissimo Chiang Kai-shek, who had already fled to Hankow to which he had temporarily shifted the military headquarters two days earlier. Jenderal Tang setuju dengan usulan ini jika Komite Internasional bisa memperoleh izin dari Generalissimo Chiang Kai-shek, yang telah melarikan diri ke Hankow yang ia bergeser sementara markas besar militer dua hari sebelumnya.

German businessman and chairman of the International Committee, John Rabe, boarded the US gunboat Panay on Dec. 9 and sent two telegrams, one to Chiang Kai-shek by way of the American ambassador in Hankow, and one to the Japanese military authority in Shanghai. Pengusaha Jerman dan ketua Komite Internasional, John Rabe, naik kapal perang Amerika Serikat Panay pada tanggal 9 dan mengirimkan dua telegram, satu ke Chiang Kai-shek melalui Duta Besar Amerika di Hankow, dan satu ke otoritas militer Jepang di Shanghai . The next day he was informed that Chiang Kai-shek, who had ordered that Nanking be defended "to the last man," had refused to accept the proposal. [ citation needed ] Hari berikutnya ia diberitahu bahwa Chiang Kai-shek, yang telah memerintahkan Nanking dipertahankan "kepada orang terakhir," telah menolak untuk menerima proposal. [Rujukan?]
[ edit ] Assault and capture of Nanking [Sunting] Penyerangan dan penangkapan Nanking
Iwane Matsui enters Nanking Iwane Matsui memasuki Nanking

The Japanese awaited an answer to their demand for surrender but no response was received from the Chinese by the noon deadline on December 10. Ditunggu Jepang jawaban permintaan mereka menyerah tetapi tidak mendapatkan respon yang diterima dari Cina oleh tenggat waktu tengah hari pada tanggal 10 Desember. General Matsui Iwane waited another hour before issuing the command to take Nanking by force. Jenderal Matsui Iwane menunggu satu jam lagi sebelum mengeluarkan perintah untuk mengambil Nanking dengan kekerasan. The Japanese army mounted its assault on the Nanking walls from multiple directions; the SEF's 16th Division attacked three gates on the eastern side, the 6th Division of the 10A launched its offensive on the western walls, and the SEF's 9th Division advanced into the area in-between. [ 9 ] Tentara Jepang yang dipasang dengan serangan terhadap dinding Nanking dari berbagai arah; di SEF-16 Divisi menyerang tiga pintu gerbang di sisi timur, ke-6 Divisi 10A meluncurkan serangan pada dinding barat, dan Divisi ke-9 SEF itu maju ke daerah di -antara. [9]

On December 12, after two days of Japanese attack, under heavy artillery fire and aerial bombardment, General Tang Sheng-chi ordered his men to retreat. Pada tanggal 12 Desember, setelah dua hari serangan Jepang, di bawah tembakan artileri berat dan pemboman, Jenderal Tang Sheng-chi memerintahkan anak buahnya untuk mundur. What followed was nothing short of chaos. Yang terjadi selanjutnya adalah apa-apa pendek kekacauan. Some Chinese soldiers stripped civilians of their clothing in a desperate attempt to blend in, and many others were shot by the Chinese supervisory unit as they tried to flee. [ 16 ] Beberapa tentara Cina sipil dilucuti pakaian mereka dalam sebuah upaya putus asa untuk berbaur, dan banyak lainnya ditembak oleh unit pengawasan cina mereka mencoba melarikan diri. [16]

On the 13th of December, the 6th and the 116th Divisions of the Japanese Army were the first to enter the city, facing little military resistance. Pada 13 Desember, dan ke-6 Divisi 116 tentara Jepang adalah yang pertama kali memasuki kota, menghadapi perlawanan militer kecil. Simultaneously, the 9th Division entered nearby Guanghua Gate, and the 16th Division entered the Zhongshan and Taiping gates. Secara bersamaan, Divisi ke-9 memasuki Gerbang Guanghua di dekatnya, dan 16 Divisi memasuki gerbang Zhongshan dan Taiping. That same afternoon, two small Japanese Navy fleets arrived on both sides of the Yangtze River. Sore yang sama, dua kecil Angkatan Laut Jepang armada tiba di kedua sisi Sungai Yangtze. Nanking fell to the Japanese by nightfall. [ citation needed ] Nanking jatuh ke tangan Jepang menjelang malam. [Rujukan?]
[ edit ] Pursuit and mopping-up operations [Sunting] Pengejaran dan operasi-operasi
Soldiers from the Imperial Japanese Army enter Nanking in January 1938 Prajurit dari Tentara Kekaisaran Jepang memasuki Nanking pada Januari 1938

Japanese troops pursued the retreating Chinese army units, primarily in the Xiakuan area to the north of the city walls and around the Zijin Mountain in the east. Mengejar pasukan Jepang mundur tentara Cina unit, terutama di daerah Xiakuan di sebelah utara tembok kota dan di sekitar Gunung Zijin di timur. Although the popular narrative suggests that the final phase of the battle consisted of a one-sided slaughter of Chinese troops by the Japanese, some Japanese historians maintain that the remaining Chinese military still posed a serious threat to the Japanese. Meskipun narasi populer menunjukkan bahwa fase akhir dari pertempuran terdiri dari satu sisi pembantaian tentara Cina oleh Jepang, beberapa sejarawan Jepang berpendapat bahwa militer Cina yang tersisa masih menimbulkan ancaman serius bagi Jepang. Prince Yasuhiko Asaka, SEF commander, told a war correspondent later that he was in a very perilous position when his headquarters was ambushed by Chinese forces that were in the midst of retreating from Nanking east of the city. Yasuhiko Pangeran Asaka, SEF komandan, kepada koresponden perang kemudian bahwa dia berada dalam posisi yang sangat berbahaya ketika markas disergap oleh pasukan Cina yang berada di tengah-tengah mundur dari Nanking timur kota. On the other side of the city, the 11th Company of the 45th Regiment encountered some 20,000 Chinese military soldiers who were making their way from Xiakuan. [ 9 ] Di sisi lain kota, 11 Perusahaan dari 45 Resimen dijumpai sekitar 20.000 tentara militer Cina yang sedang membuat jalan dari Xiakuan. [9]

The Japanese army conducted its mopping-up operation both inside and outside the Nanking Safety Zone . Tentara Jepang dilakukan dengan operasi-operasi baik di dalam maupun di luar Nanking Safety Zone. Since the area outside the safety zone had been almost completely evacuated, the mopping-up effort was concentrated in the safety zone. Karena daerah di luar zona aman sudah hampir sepenuhnya dievakuasi, yang operasi-upaya terkonsentrasi di zona aman. The safety zone, an area of 3.85 square kilometers, was literally packed with the remaining population of Nanking. see TfD A number of Chinese soldiers in civilian clothes were hiding among the civilians in the Safety Zone; the Japanese military leadership estimated the number of such soldiers at about 20,000. [ citation needed ] Zona keamanan, area seluas 3,85 kilometer persegi, benar-benar penuh dengan penduduk yang tersisa Nanking. Lihat TFD Sejumlah tentara Cina dalam pakaian sipil bersembunyi di antara warga sipil di Zona Keamanan; kepemimpinan militer Jepang memperkirakan jumlah tersebut prajurit di sekitar 20.000. [rujukan?]

Some Japanese historians argue that, if such soldiers had found an opportunity to assault the Japanese, the safety zone would have become a battlefield. Beberapa sejarawan Jepang berpendapat bahwa, jika tentara tersebut telah menemukan kesempatan untuk serangan Jepang, zona keselamatan akan menjadi medan perang. They assert that, in this eventuality, the resulting military action would have endangered the safety of innocent civilians. Mereka menyatakan bahwa, dalam kemungkinan ini, hasil aksi militer akan membahayakan keselamatan warga sipil tak berdosa. For this reason, the Japanese army leadership assigned sections of the safety zone to some units to separate the plain-clothed soldiers from the civilians. [ 29 ] Untuk alasan ini, tentara Jepang yang ditugaskan kepemimpinan bagian dari zona aman untuk beberapa unit untuk memisahkan tentara berpakaian biasa dari rakyat sipil. [29]
[ edit ] The massacre [Sunting] Pembantaian

Eyewitness accounts of Westerners and Chinese present at Nanking in the weeks after the fall of the city state that over the course of six weeks following the fall of Nanking, Japanese troops engaged in rape, murder, theft, arson, and other war crimes. Saksi mata orang Barat dan Cina di Nanking hadir dalam minggu-minggu setelah jatuhnya kota menyatakan bahwa selama enam minggu setelah jatuhnya Nanking, tentara Jepang terlibat dalam pemerkosaan, pembunuhan, pencurian, pembakaran, dan kejahatan perang lainnya. Some of these accounts came from foreigners who opted to stay behind in order to protect Chinese civilians from harm, including the diaries of German John Rabe and American Minnie Vautrin . Beberapa account tersebut berasal dari orang asing yang memilih untuk tinggal di belakang untuk melindungi warga sipil dari bahaya cina, termasuk buku harian Jerman John Rabe dan American Minnie Vautrin. Other accounts include first-person testimonies of the Nanking Massacre survivors, eyewitness reports of journalists (both Western and Japanese), as well as the field diaries of military personnel. Akun lain termasuk orang pertama kesaksian dari korban Pembantaian Nanking, laporan saksi mata wartawan (baik Barat dan Jepang), serta buku harian bidang personil militer. An American missionary, John Magee , stayed behind to provide a 16 mm film documentary and first-hand photographs of the Nanking Massacre. Seorang Amerika misionaris, John Magee, tinggal di belakang untuk menyediakan 16 mm film dokumenter dan foto-foto tangan pertama dari Pembantaian Nanking.

A group of foreign expatriates headed by John Rabe had formed the 15-man International Committee on November 22 and mapped out the Nanking Safety Zone in order to safeguard civilians in the city, where the population numbered from 200,000 to 250,000. Sebuah kelompok ekspatriat asing yang dipimpin oleh John Rabe telah membentuk pria 15-Komite Internasional November 22 dan dipetakan ke luar Keselamatan Nanking Zona dalam rangka untuk menjaga penduduk sipil di kota, di mana dari jumlah penduduk 200.000 sampai 250.000. Rabe and American missionary Lewis SC Smythe, secretary of the International Committee and a professor of sociology at the University of Nanking , recorded the actions of the Japanese troops and filed complaints to the Japanese embassy. Rabe dan misionaris Amerika Lewis SC Smythe, sekretaris dari Komite Internasional dan seorang profesor sosiologi di Universitas Nanking, mencatat tindakan yang dilakukan oleh tentara Jepang dan mengajukan keluhan kepada kedutaan Jepang.
[ edit ] Rape [Sunting] Pemerkosaan
Woman killed by Japanese army in Nanking [ 30 ] Wanita dibunuh oleh tentara Jepang di Nanking [30]

The International Military Tribunal for the Far East estimated that 20,000 women were raped, including infants and the elderly. [ 31 ] A large portion of these rapes were systematized in a process where soldiers would search door-to-door for young girls, with many women taken captive and gang raped . [ 32 ] The women were often killed immediately after the rape, often through explicit mutilation [ 33 ] or by stabbing a bayonet, long stick of bamboo [ 34 ] , or other objects into the vagina. Di Pengadilan Militer Internasional untuk Timur Jauh memperkirakan bahwa 20.000 perempuan diperkosa, termasuk bayi dan orang tua. [31] Sebagian besar perkosaan ini sistematis dalam sebuah proses di mana tentara akan mencari dari pintu ke pintu untuk gadis-gadis muda, dengan banyak wanita dijadikan tawanan dan diperkosa geng. [32] Para wanita sering dibunuh segera setelah perkosaan, sering kali melalui eksplisit mutilasi [33] atau dengan menusuk bayonet, tongkat panjang dari bambu [34], atau benda lainnya ke dalam vagina.

On 19 December 1937, Reverend James M. McCallum wrote in his diary : Pada tanggal 19 Desember 1937, Pendeta James M. McCallum menulis dalam buku hariannya:

"I know not where to end. Never I have heard or read such brutality. Rape! Rape! Rape! We estimate at least 1,000 cases a night, and many by day. In case of resistance or anything that seems like disapproval, there is a bayonet stab or a bullet... People are hysterical... Women are being carried off every morning, afternoon and evening. The whole Japanese army seems to be free to go and come as it pleases, and to do whatever it pleases." [ 35 ] "Aku tidak tahu di mana sampai akhir. Pernah saya dengar atau membaca kebrutalan seperti itu. Pemerkosaan! Pemerkosaan! Pemerkosaan! Kami memperkirakan setidaknya 1000 kasus malam, dan banyak pada siang hari. Dalam kasus penolakan atau sesuatu yang tampak seperti ketidaksetujuan, ada bayonet menusuk atau peluru ... Orang-orang histeris ... Wanita yang sedang membawa pergi setiap pagi, sore dan malam hari. Seluruh tentara Jepang tampaknya bebas untuk pergi dan datang seperti itu menyenangkan, dan untuk melakukan apa pun yang menyenangkan. "[35]

On March 7, 1938, Robert O. Wilson , a surgeon at the American-administered University Hospital in the Safety Zone, wrote in a letter to his family, "a conservative estimate of people slaughtered in cold blood is somewhere about 100,000, including of course thousands of soldiers that had thrown down their arms". [ 36 ] Pada 7 Maret 1938, Robert O. Wilson, seorang ahli bedah di Amerika dikelola University Hospital di Zona Keamanan, menulis dalam sebuah surat kepada keluarganya, "perkiraan yang konservatif orang dibantai dengan darah dingin adalah suatu tempat sekitar 100.000, termasuk dari saja ribuan tentara yang telah dilemparkan ke bawah lengan mereka ". [36]

Here are two excerpts from his letters of 15 and 18 December 1937 to his family : Berikut adalah dua kutipan dari surat-suratnya dari 15 dan 18 Desember 1937 kepada keluarganya:

"The slaughter of civilians is appalling. I could go on for pages telling of cases of rape and brutality almost beyond belief. Two bayoneted corpses are the only survivors of seven street cleaners who were sitting in their headquarters when Japanese soldiers came in without warning or reason and killed five of their number and wounded the two that found their way to the hospital." "Pembantaian warga sipil yang mengerikan. Aku bisa terus halaman menceritakan kasus-kasus pemerkosaan dan kebrutalan hampir melampaui keyakinan. Bayoneted Dua mayat adalah satu-satunya jalan yang selamat dari tujuh pembersih yang duduk di markas mereka ketika tentara Jepang datang tanpa peringatan atau alasan dan menewaskan lima dari mereka dan melukai dua yang menemukan jalan ke rumah sakit. "

"Let me recount some instances occurring in the last two days. Last night the house of one of the Chinese staff members of the university was broken into and two of the women, his relatives, were raped. Two girls, about 16, were raped to death in one of the refugee camps. In the University Middle School where there are 8,000 people the Japs came in ten times last night, over the wall, stole food, clothing, and raped until they were satisfied. They bayoneted one little boy of eight who have [sic] five bayonet wounds including one that penetrated his stomach, a portion of omentum was outside the abdomen. I think he will live." [ 37 ] "Biarkan aku menceritakan beberapa hal yang terjadi dalam dua hari terakhir. Tadi malam rumah salah satu anggota staf cina universitas didobrak dan dua perempuan, sanak keluarganya, yang diperkosa. Dua gadis, sekitar 16, yang diperkosa mati di salah satu kamp-kamp pengungsi. Di Universitas Sekolah Menengah di mana terdapat 8.000 orang Jepang datang di sepuluh kali tadi malam, di atas dinding, mencuri makanan, pakaian, dan diperkosa sampai mereka puas. Mereka bayoneted salah satu anak laki-laki dari delapan yang telah [sic] lima bayonet luka termasuk satu yang menembus perutnya, sebagian omentum berada di luar perut. Saya kira dia akan hidup. "[37]

In his diary kept during the aggression to the city and its occupation by the Imperial Japanese Army , the leader of the Safety Zone, John Rabe , wrote many comments about Japanese atrocities. Dalam buku hariannya yang disimpan selama agresi ke kota dan pendudukan oleh Tentara Kekaisaran Jepang, pemimpin dari Safety Zone, John Rabe, menulis banyak komentar tentang kekejaman Jepang. For the 17th December: Untuk 17 Desember:

"Two Japanese soldiers have climbed over the garden wall and are about to break into our house. When I appear they give the excuse that they saw two Chinese soldiers climb over the wall. When I show them my party badge, they return the same way. In one of the houses in the narrow street behind my garden wall, a woman was raped, and then wounded in the neck with a bayonet. I managed to get an ambulance so we can take her to Kulou Hospital. (...) Last night up to 1,000 women and girls are said to have been raped, about 100 girls at Ginling College Girls alone. You hear nothing but rape. If husbands or brothers intervene, they're shot. What you hear and see on all sides is the brutality and bestiality of the Japanese soldiers." [ 38 ] "Dua tentara Jepang telah memanjat dinding kebun dan akan masuk ke rumah kami. Ketika saya muncul, mereka memberikan alasan bahwa mereka melihat dua tentara Cina memanjat dinding. Ketika saya menunjukkan lencana pestaku, mereka kembali dengan cara yang sama . Dalam salah satu rumah di jalan sempit di balik tembok taman, seorang wanita diperkosa, dan kemudian terluka di leher dengan bayonet. saya berhasil mendapatkan sebuah ambulans sehingga kami dapat membawanya ke Rumah Sakit Kulou. (...) Tadi malam sampai 1.000 wanita dan anak perempuan dikatakan telah diperkosa, sekitar 100 gadis di College Girls Ginling sendirian. Anda mendengar apa pun kecuali pemerkosaan. Jika suami atau saudara laki-laki campur tangan, mereka menembak. Apa yang Anda dengar dan lihat di semua sisi adalah kebrutalan dan kebinatangan dari tentara Jepang. "[38]

There are also accounts of Japanese troops forcing families to commit acts of incest . [ 39 ] Sons were forced to rape their mothers, fathers were forced to rape daughters. Ada juga rekening pasukan Jepang memaksa keluarga untuk melakukan tindakan inses. [39] Anak-anak dipaksa untuk memperkosa ibu mereka, ayah dipaksa memperkosa anak perempuan. One pregnant woman was gang-raped by Japanese soldiers gave birth only a few hours later; although the baby appeared to be physically unharmed (Robert B. Edgerton, Warriors of the Rising Sun ). Salah satu wanita hamil diperkosa beramai-ramai oleh tentara Jepang hanya melahirkan beberapa jam kemudian; meskipun bayi tampaknya tidak terluka secara fisik (Robert B. Edgerton, Warriors Matahari Terbit). Monks who had declared a life of celibacy were also forced to rape women. Biarawan yang telah mendeklarasikan kehidupan selibat juga dipaksa untuk memperkosa wanita.
[ edit ] Murder of civilians [Sunting] Pembunuhan warga sipil

On 13 December 1937, John Rabe wrote in his diary : Pada 13 Desember 1937, John Rabe menulis dalam buku hariannya:

"It is not until we tour the city that we learn the extent of destruction. We come across corpses every 100 to 200 yards. The bodies of civilians that I examined had bullet holes in their backs. These people had presumably been fleeing and were shot from behind. The Japanese march through the city in groups of ten to twenty soldiers and loot the shops (...) I watched with my own eyes as they looted the café of our German baker Herr Kiessling. Hempel's hotel was broken into as well, as almost every shop on Chung Shang and Taiping Road." [ 40 ] "Tidak sampai kita wisata kota yang kita belajar luasnya kehancuran. Kita menemukan mayat setiap 100-200 meter. Mayat sipil bahwa saya telah memeriksa lubang peluru di punggung mereka. Orang-orang yang diduga telah melarikan diri dan ditembak dari belakang. Orang Jepang berbaris melalui kota dalam kelompok sepuluh sampai dua puluh tentara dan menjarah toko-toko (...) Aku melihat dengan mata kepalaku sendiri saat mereka menjarah kafe kita tukang roti jerman Herr Kiessling. Hempel's hotel ini juga dipecah menjadi , karena hampir setiap toko di Chung Shang dan Taiping Road. "[40]

On 10 February 1938, Legation Secretary of the German Embassy, Rosen, wrote to his Foreign Ministry about a film made in December by Reverend John Magee to recommend its purchase. Di 10 Februari 1938, Legation Sekretaris Kedutaan Besar Jerman, Rosen, menulis surat kepada Kementerian Luar Negeri tentang sebuah film yang dibuat pada bulan Desember oleh Pendeta John Magee untuk merekomendasikan pembelian. Here is an excerpt from his letter and a description of some of its shots, kept in the Political Archives of the Foreign Ministry in Berlin. Berikut adalah kutipan dari surat dan keterangan tentang beberapa dari gambar, disimpan di Arsip Politik Kementerian Luar Negeri di Berlin.

"During the Japanese reign of terror in Nanking - which, by the way, continues to this day to a considerable degree - the Reverend John Magee, a member of the American Episcopal Church Mission who has been here for almost a quarter of a centuty, took motion pictures that eloquently bear witness to the atrocities committed by the Japanese. (....) One will have to wait and see whether the highest officers in the Japanese army succeed, as they have indicated, in stopping the activities of their troops, which continue even today(...)" [ 41 ] "Selama teror Jepang di Nanking - yang, omong-omong, terus hari ini cukup derajat - Pendeta John Magee, seorang anggota Gereja Episkopal Amerika Misi yang telah di sini selama hampir satu seperempat centuty, mengambil gambar gerak yang fasih menjadi saksi kekejaman yang dilakukan oleh Jepang. (....) Satu akan harus menunggu dan melihat apakah perwira tertinggi di tentara Jepang berhasil, karena mereka telah mengindikasikan, dalam kegiatan menghentikan pasukan mereka , yang terus bahkan hari ini (...)" [41]

"On December 13, about 30 soldiers came to a Chinese house at #5 Hsing Lu Koo in the southeastern part of Nanking, and demanded entrance. The door was open by the landlord, a Mohammedan named Ha. They killed him immediately with a revolver and also Mrs. Ha, who knelt before them after Ha's death, begging them not to kill anyone else. Mrs. Ha asked them why they killed her husband and they shot her dead. Mrs. Hsia was dragged out from under a table in the guest hall where she had tried to hide with her 1 year old baby. After being stripped and raped by one or more men, she was bayoneted in the chest, and then had a bottle thrust into her vagina. The baby was killed with a bayonet. Some soldiers then went to the next room, where Mrs. Hsia's parents, aged 76 and 74, and her two daughters aged 16 and 14. They were about to rape the girls when the grandmother tried to protect them. The soldiers killed her with a revolver. The grandfather grasped the body of his wife and was killed. The two girls were then stripped, the elder being raped by 2-3 men, and the younger by 3. The older girl was stabbed afterwards and a cane was rammed in her vagina. The younger girl was bayoneted also but was spared the horrible treatment that had been meted out to her sister and mother. The soldiers then bayoneted another sister of between 7-8, who was also in the room. The last murders in the house were of Ha's two children, aged 4 and 2 respectively. The older was bayoneted and the younger split down through the head with a sword. (...)" [ 42 ] "Pada tanggal 13 Desember, sekitar 30 tentara datang ke sebuah rumah Cina di # 5 Hsing Lu Koo di bagian tenggara Nanking, dan menuntut masuk. Pintunya terbuka oleh pemilik, seorang Muslim bernama Ha. Mereka membunuhnya langsung dengan revolver dan juga Mrs Ha, yang berlutut di depan mereka setelah kematian Ha, memohon mereka untuk tidak membunuh orang lain. Mrs Ha bertanya kepada mereka mengapa mereka membunuh suaminya dan mereka menembak dia mati. Mrs Hsia diseret keluar dari bawah meja di ruang tamu di mana ia mencoba menyembunyikan dengan bayi berusia 1 tahun. Setelah ditelanjangi dan diperkosa oleh satu atau lebih laki-laki, ia bayoneted di dada, dan kemudian punya botol dorong ke dalam vagina. Bayi dibunuh dengan bayonet . Beberapa prajurit kemudian pergi ke kamar sebelah, di mana Mrs Hsia orang tua, yang berusia 76 dan 74, dan dua putri berusia 16 dan 14. Mereka hendak memperkosa gadis-gadis saat sang nenek berusaha untuk melindungi mereka. Para prajurit membunuhnya dengan pistol. Sang kakek memegang tubuh istrinya dan terbunuh. Kedua gadis itu kemudian dilucuti, penatua diperkosa sebanyak 2-3 orang, dan yang lebih muda dengan 3. gadis yang lebih tua dan kemudian ditusuk tongkat itu menabrak di vaginanya. gadis yang lebih muda juga tapi bayoneted terhindar dari perlakuan mengerikan yang telah dijatuhkan pada kakaknya dan ibu. bayoneted Para prajurit kemudian adik lain antara 7-8, yang juga di dalam ruangan. pembunuhan terakhir di Ha rumah adalah dua anak, usia 4 dan 2 masing-masing. bayoneted yang lebih tua itu dan yang lebih muda membagi turun melalui kepala dengan pedang. (...)" [42]

Pregnant women were a target of murder, as they would often be bayoneted in the stomach, sometimes after rape. Perempuan hamil target pembunuhan, karena mereka akan sering bayoneted di perut, kadang-kadang setelah pemerkosaan. Tang Junshan, survivor and witness to one of the Japanese army's systematic mass killings, testified: Tang Junshan, korban dan saksi ke salah satu tentara Jepang yang sistematis pembunuhan massal, bersaksi:

"The seventh and last person in the first row was a pregnant woman. The soldier thought he might as well rape her before killing her, so he pulled her out of the group to a spot about ten meters away. As he was trying to rape her, the woman resisted fiercely...The soldier abruptly stabbed her in the belly with a bayonet. She gave a final scream as her intestines spilled out. Then the soldier stabbed the fetus, with its umbilical cord clearly visible, and tossed it aside." [ 43 ] "Ketujuh dan orang terakhir di baris pertama adalah seorang wanita hamil. Serdadu mengira ia mungkin juga memerkosanya sebelum membunuhnya, maka ia menariknya keluar dari kelompok untuk sebuah tempat sekitar sepuluh meter jauhnya. Saat ia mencoba memperkosa nya, wanita menolak keras ... tiba-tiba prajurit menikamnya di perut dengan bayonet. Wanita itu menjerit saat akhir ususnya tumpah keluar. Lalu prajurit menikam janin, dengan tali pusar jelas terlihat, dan melemparkannya ke samping . "[43]

Thousands were led away and mass-executed in an excavation known as the "Ten-Thousand-Corpse Ditch", a trench measuring about 300m long and 5m wide. Ribuan orang dibawa pergi dan massa-dieksekusi dalam sebuah penggalian yang dikenal sebagai "Sepuluh-Ribu-Mayat Ditch", sebuah parit berukuran 300 meter panjang dan lebar 5m. Since records were not kept, estimates regarding the number of victims buried in the ditch range from 4,000 to 20,000. Karena catatan itu tidak disimpan, perkiraan mengenai jumlah korban terkubur di dalam parit berkisar antara 4.000 hingga 20.000. However, most scholars and historians consider the number to be more than 12,000 victims. [ 44 ] Namun, kebanyakan sarjana dan sejarawan mempertimbangkan jumlah lebih dari 12.000 korban. [44]

The Japanese officers turned the act of murder into sport. Perwira Jepang mengubah tindakan pembunuhan ke dalam olahraga. They would set out to kill a certain number of Chinese before the other. Mereka akan berangkat untuk membunuh sejumlah cina sebelum yang lain. Young men would also be used for bayonet training. Laki-laki muda juga akan digunakan untuk pelatihan bayonet. Their limbs would be restrained or they would be tied to a post while the Japanese soldiers took turns plunging their bayonets into the victims' bodies. [ citation needed ] Kaki mereka akan ditahan atau mereka akan diikat pada sebuah tiang sementara tentara Jepang bergiliran terjun bayonet mereka ke korban tubuh. [Rujukan?]

The sheer volume of murdered civilians posed a formidable logistical challenge when it came to disposing of the bodies. Volume semata-mata warga sipil dibunuh logistik menimbulkan tantangan hebat ketika harus membuang mayat. Many Chinese were conscripted into "burial teams", an experience they would later recall as horrifically traumatic. [ 45 ] Banyak orang Cina diwajibkan menjadi "pemakaman tim", sebuah pengalaman mereka akan kemudian ingat sebagai traumatis mengerikan. [45]


Prisoners being buried alive [ 46 ] Narapidana dikubur hidup-hidup [46]
Pembantaian Nanjing terputus heads.jpg

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Pembantaian Nanjing tulang victims1.jpg

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[ edit ] Execution of Chinese POWs [Sunting] Pelaksanaan POW cina

On August 6 , 1937 , Hirohito personally ratified his army's proposition to remove the constraints of international law on the treatment of Chinese prisoners. Pada Agustus 6, 1937, Hirohito meratifikasi pribadi proposisi pasukannya untuk menghapus kendala hukum internasional tentang perlakuan terhadap tawanan Cina. This directive also advised staff officers to stop using the term "prisoner of war". [ 47 ] Direktif ini juga menyarankan perwira staf untuk menghentikan penggunaan istilah "tawanan perang". [47]

Immediately after the fall of the city, Japanese troops embarked on a determined search for former soldiers, in which thousands of young men were captured. Segera setelah jatuhnya kota, pasukan Jepang memulai sebuah pencarian ditentukan bagi mantan tentara, di mana ribuan pemuda ditangkap. Many were taken to the Yangtze River , where they were machine-gunned. Banyak yang dibawa ke Sungai Yangtze, di mana mereka mesin melesat. What was probably the single largest massacre of Chinese troops occurred along the banks of the Yangtze River on December 18 in what is called the Straw String Gorge Massacre. Apa mungkin terbesar pembantaian tentara Cina terjadi di sepanjang tepi Sungai Yangtze pada tanggal 18 Desember dalam apa yang disebut Pembantaian Straw Taman String. Japanese soldiers took most of the morning tying all of the POWs hands together and in the dusk divided them into 4 columns, and opened fire at them. Tentara Jepang mengambil sebagian besar pagi mengikat semua tangan para tahanan bersama-sama dan dalam senja mereka dibagi menjadi 4 kolom, dan melepaskan tembakan ke arah mereka. Unable to escape, the POWs could only scream and thrash in desperation. Tidak dapat melarikan diri, para tahanan hanya bisa menjerit dan thrash putus asa. It took an hour for the sounds of death to stop, and even longer for the Japanese to bayonet each individual. Perlu waktu satu jam untuk suara kematian untuk berhenti, dan bahkan lebih lama bagi Jepang untuk bayonet setiap individu. Most were dumped into the Yangtze. Sebagian besar dibuang ke Sungai Yangtze. It is estimated that at least 57,500 Chinese POWs were killed. [ citation needed ] Diperkirakan bahwa setidaknya 57.500 POW Cina terbunuh. [Rujukan?]

The Japanese troops gathered 1,300 Chinese soldiers and civilians at Taiping Gate and killed them. Pasukan Jepang mengumpulkan 1.300 tentara Cina dan warga sipil di Taiping Gerbang dan membunuh mereka. The victims were blown up with landmines, then doused with petrol before being set on fire. Korban diledakkan dengan ranjau darat, lalu disiram dengan bensin sebelum dibakar. Those that were left alive afterward were killed with bayonets. [ 48 ] Orang yang masih hidup sesudahnya terbunuh dengan bayonet. [48]

F. Tillman Durdin and Archibald Steele , American news correspondents, reported that they had seen bodies of killed Chinese soldiers forming mounds six feet high at the Nanking Yijiang gate in the north. F. Tillman Durdin dan Archibald Steele, koresponden berita Amerika, melaporkan bahwa mereka telah melihat mayat dibunuh tentara Cina membentuk gundukan enam meter di Nanking Yijiang gerbang di utara. Durdin, who was working for the New York Times , made a tour of Nanking before his departure from the city. Durdin, yang bekerja untuk New York Times, membuat tur Nanking sebelum keberangkatannya dari kota. He heard waves of machine-gun fire and witnessed the Japanese soldiers gun down some two hundred Chinese within ten minutes. Ia mendengar gelombang tembakan senapan mesin dan menyaksikan tentara Jepang menembak jatuh sekitar dua ratus cina dalam sepuluh menit. Two days later, in his report to the New York Times , he stated that the alleys and street were filled with civilian bodies, including women and children. [ 49 ] Dua hari kemudian, dalam laporannya kepada New York Times, ia menyatakan bahwa gang-gang dan jalan itu penuh dengan tubuh sipil, termasuk wanita dan anak-anak. [49]

According to a testimony made by missionary Ralph L. Phillips to the US State Assembly Investigating Committee, he was "forced to watch while the Japs disembowled a Chinese soldier" and "roasted his heart and liver and ate them". [ 50 ] Menurut sebuah kesaksian yang dibuat oleh misionari Ralph L. Phillips ke AS Penyelidik Majelis Negara, ia "dipaksa untuk menonton sementara Jepang disembowled seorang tentara Cina" dan "panggang hati dan hati dan memakannya". [50]
[ edit ] Theft and arson [Sunting] Pencurian dan pembakaran

One-third of the city was destroyed as a result of arson. Sepertiga dari kota itu hancur sebagai hasil dari pembakaran. According to reports, Japanese troops torched newly-built government buildings as well as the homes of many civilians. Menurut laporan, pasukan Jepang dibakar baru dibangun gedung-gedung pemerintah serta rumah dari banyak warga sipil. There was considerable destruction to areas outside the city walls. Ada banyak kehancuran untuk daerah-daerah di luar tembok kota. Soldiers pillaged from the poor and the wealthy alike. Tentara dijarah dari masyarakat miskin dan kaya sama. The lack of resistance from Chinese troops and civilians in Nanking meant that the Japanese soldiers were free to divide up the city's valuables as they saw fit. Tidak adanya perlawanan dari tentara Cina dan warga sipil di Nanking berarti bahwa tentara Jepang bebas untuk membagi barang-barang berharga di kota itu ketika mereka melihat cocok. This resulted in the widespread looting and burglary. [ 51 ] Hal ini mengakibatkan meluasnya penjarahan dan pencurian. [51]

On 17 December, John Rabe wrote as chairman a complaint to Kiyoshi Fukui, second secretary of the Japanese Embassy. Tanggal 17 Desember, John Rabe menulis sebagai ketua pengaduan kepada Kiyoshi Fukui, sekretaris kedua Kedutaan Besar Jepang. The following is an excerpt: Berikut ini adalah kutipan:

"In other words, on the 13th when your troops entered the city, we had nearly all the civilian population gathered in a Zone in which there had been very little destruction by stray shells and no looting by Chinese soldiers even in full retreat. (...) All 27 Occidentals in the city at that time and our Chinese population were totally surprised by the reign of robbery, rapine and killing initiated by your soldiers on the 14th. All we are asking in our protest is that you restore order among your troops and get the normal life city going as soon as possible. In the latter process we are glad to cooperate in any way we can. But even last night between 8 and 9 pm when five Occidentals members of our staff and Committee toured the Zone to observe conditions, we did not find any single Japanese patrol either in the Zone or at the entrances!" [ 52 ] "Dengan kata lain, pada 13 saat pasukan memasuki kota, kami sudah hampir semua penduduk sipil berkumpul di sebuah Zona di mana telah terjadi sangat sedikit dihancurkan oleh peluru nyasar dan tidak ada penjarahan oleh tentara Cina bahkan di mundur. (. ..) Semua Occidentals di 27 kota pada waktu itu dan penduduk Cina kita benar-benar terkejut oleh pemerintahan perampokan, pencurian dan pembunuhan yang dilakukan oleh tentara pada 14. Semua kita bertanya dalam protes kami adalah bahwa Anda memulihkan ketertiban di antara Anda pasukan dan mendapatkan kehidupan normal kota akan sesegera mungkin. Dalam proses terakhir kami senang untuk bekerjasama dengan cara apapun yang kami bisa. Tetapi bahkan tadi malam antara 8 dan 9 malam ketika Occidentals lima anggota staf dan Komite Zona berkeliling untuk mengamati kondisi, kami tidak menemukan satu patroli Jepang baik di Zone atau di pintu masuk! "[52]

[ edit ] The Nanking Safety Zone and the role of foreigners [Sunting] The Nanking Safety Zone dan peran asing

The Japanese troops did respect the Zone to an extent; no shells entered that part of the city leading up to the Japanese occupation except a few stray shots. Pasukan Jepang tidak menghormati Zona ke tingkat tidak ada peluru masuk bagian dari kota menuju pendudukan Jepang kecuali beberapa tembakan nyasar. During the chaos following the attack of the city, some were killed in the Safety Zone, but the crimes that took place in the rest of the city were far greater by all accounts. Selama kekacauan setelah serangan kota, ada yang tewas dalam Zona Keselamatan, tetapi kejahatan yang terjadi di seluruh kota jauh lebih besar oleh semua account.

The Japanese soldiers committed actions in the Safety Zone that were part of the larger Nanking Massacre. Tentara Jepang melakukan tindakan di Zona Keselamatan yang merupakan bagian dari Pembantaian Nanking yang lebih besar. The International Committee appealed a number of times to the Japanese army, with John Rabe using his credentials as a NSDAP member, but to no avail. Komite Internasional naik banding beberapa kali untuk tentara Jepang, dengan John Rabe menggunakan surat-surat kepercayaan sebagai NSDAP anggota, tetapi tidak berhasil. Rabe wrote that from time to time the Japanese would enter the Safety Zone at will, carry off a few hundred men and women, and either summarily execute them or rape and then kill them. [ 53 ] Rabe menulis bahwa dari waktu ke waktu Jepang akan memasuki Zona Keamanan di akan, membawa pergi beberapa ratus pria dan wanita, dan baik dgn cepat mengeksekusi mereka atau perkosaan dan kemudian membunuh mereka. [53]

By February 5, 1938, the International Committee had forwarded to the Japanese embassy a total of 450 cases of murder, rape, and general disorder by Japanese soldiers that had been reported after the American, British and German diplomats had returned to their embassies. [ 54 ] Pada 5 Februari 1938, para Komite Internasional telah diteruskan ke Kedutaan Besar Jepang total 450 kasus pembunuhan, pemerkosaan, dan gangguan umum oleh tentara Jepang yang telah dilaporkan setelah Amerika, Inggris dan Jerman diplomat telah kembali ke kedutaan mereka. [ 54]

"Case 5- On the night of December 14th, there were many cases of Japanese soldiers entering houses and raping women or taking them away. This created panic in the area and hundreds of women moved into the Gingling College campus yesterday." [ 54 ] "Kasus 5 - Pada malam tanggal 14 Desember ada banyak kasus tentara Jepang memasuki rumah-rumah dan memperkosa wanita atau membawa mereka pergi. Hal ini menciptakan kepanikan di daerah dan ratusan perempuan pindah ke kampus College Gingling kemarin." [54]

"Case 10- On the night of December 15th, a number of Japanese soldiers entered the University of Nanking buildings at Tao Yuen and raped 30 women on the spot, some by six men." [ 54 ] "Kasus 10 - Pada malam tanggal 15 Desember sejumlah tentara Jepang masuk University of Nanking bangunan di Tao Yuen dan memperkosa 30 perempuan di tempat, sebagian oleh enam laki-laki." [54]

"Case 13 - December 18, 4 pm, at No. 18 I Ho Lu, Japanese soldiers wanted a man's cigarette case and when he hesitated, one of the soldier crashed in the side of his head with a bayonet. The man is now at the University Hospital and is not expected to live." [ 54 ] "Kasus 13 - Desember 18, 4 pm, di No 18 Saya Ho Lu, tentara Jepang menginginkan kotak rokok pria dan ketika dia ragu-ragu, salah seorang prajurit jatuh di sisi kepalanya dengan bayonet. Laki-laki sekarang di University Hospital dan tidak diharapkan untuk hidup. "[54]

"Case 14 - On December 16th, seven girls (ages ranged from 16 to 21) were taken away from the Military College. Five returned. Each girl was raped six or seven times daily- reported December 18th." [ 54 ] "Kasus 14 - Pada tanggal 16 Desember tujuh anak perempuan (usia berkisar antara 16-21) adalah diambil dari Akademi Militer. Lima kembali. Masing-masing gadis itu diperkosa enam atau tujuh kali sehari dilaporkan Desember 18." [54]

"Case 15 - There are about 540 refugees crowded in #83 and 85 on Canton Road... More than 30 women and girls have been raped. The women and children are crying all nights. Conditions inside the compound are worse than we can describe. Please give us help." [ 54 ] "Kasus 15 - Ada sekitar 540 pengungsi yang penuh sesak di dalam # 83 dan 85 di Kanton Road ... Lebih dari 30 perempuan dan gadis-gadis telah diperkosa. Para perempuan dan anak-anak yang menangis malam-malam. Kondisi di dalam kompleks lebih buruk daripada kita dapat menggambarkan . Tolong beri kami membantu. "[54]

"Case 16- A Chinese girl named Loh, who, with her mother and brother, was living in one of the Refugee Centers in the Refugee Zone, was shot through the head and killed by a Japanese soldier. The girl was 14 years old. The incident occurred near the Kuling Ssu, a noted temple on the border of the Refugee zone (...)" [ 54 ] "Kasus 16 - Seorang gadis Cina bernama Loh, yang, bersama ibu dan kakaknya, tinggal di salah satu Pusat Pengungsi di Zona Pengungsi, ditembak di kepala dan dibunuh oleh tentara Jepang. Gadis berusia 14 tahun. Insiden terjadi di dekat Kuling Ssu, sebuah kuil dicatat di perbatasan zona Pengungsi (...)" [54]

"Case 19 - January 30th, about 5 pm Mr. Sone (of the Nanking Theological Seminary) was greeted by several hundred women pleading with him that they would not have to go home on February 4th. They said it was no use going home they might just as well be killed for staying at the camp as to be raped, robbed or killed at home. (...) One old woman 62 years old went home near Hansimen and Japanese soldiers came at night and wanted to rape her. She said she was too old. So the soldiers rammed a stick up her. But she survived to come back." [ 54 ] "Kasus 19 - Januari 30, sekitar 5 Mr Sone (dari Nanking Theological Seminary) disambut oleh beberapa ratus perempuan memohon kepadanya bahwa mereka tidak akan pulang ke rumah pada 4 Februari. Mereka bilang tidak ada gunanya pulang mereka bisa saja dibunuh untuk tinggal di kamp untuk diperkosa, dirampok atau dibunuh di rumah. (...) Seorang perempuan tua 62 tahun pulang ke rumah di dekat Hansimen dan tentara Jepang datang pada malam hari dan ingin memerkosanya. Dia bilang dia terlalu tua. Jadi para prajurit menabrak membela dirinya. Tapi ia selamat untuk datang kembali. "[54]

It is said that Rabe rescued between 200,000 - 250,000 Chinese people. [ 55 ] [ 56 ] Dikatakan bahwa Rabe diselamatkan antara 200.000 - 250.000 orang Cina. [55] [56]
[ edit ] Matsui's reaction to the massacre [Sunting] Matsui reaksi pembantaian

On December 18, 1937, as Matsui began to comprehend the full extent of the rape, murder, and looting in the city, he grew increasingly dismayed. Tanggal 18 Desember 1937, sebagai Matsui mulai memahami sepenuhnya tentang pemerkosaan, pembunuhan, dan penjarahan di kota, dia menjadi semakin cemas. He reportedly told one of his civilian aides: "I now realize that we have unknowingly wrought a most grievous effect on this city. When I think of the feelings and sentiments of many of my Chinese friends who have fled from Nanking and of the future of the two countries, I cannot but feel depressed. I am very lonely and can never get in a mood to rejoice about this victory." Dia dilaporkan mengatakan kepada salah seorang pembantunya sipil: "Aku sekarang menyadari bahwa kita telah tanpa sadar tempa efek yang paling pedih di kota ini. Ketika aku berpikir tentang perasaan dan sentimen dari banyak teman-teman Cina saya yang telah melarikan diri dari Nanking dan dari masa depan kedua negara, saya tidak bisa tidak merasa tertekan. Saya sangat kesepian dan tidak pernah bisa dalam suasana hati untuk bersukacita tentang kemenangan ini. " He even let a tinge of regret flavor the statement he released to the press that morning: "I personally feel sorry for the tragedies to the people, but the Army must continue unless China repents. Now, in the winter, the season gives time to reflect. I offer my sympathy, with deep emotion, to a million innocent people." Dia bahkan membiarkan setitik rasa penyesalan pernyataan yang dirilis kepada pers pagi itu: "Saya pribadi merasa kasihan pada tragedi kepada orang-orang, tapi Angkatan Darat, kecuali Cina harus terus bertobat. Sekarang, di musim dingin, musim memberi waktu untuk mencerminkan. saya menawarkan simpati saya, dengan emosi yang mendalam, untuk satu juta orang tak bersalah. " On New Year's Day, Matsui was still upset about the behavior of the Japanese soldiers at Nanking. Pada hari Tahun Baru, Matsui masih kesal tentang perilaku tentara Jepang di Nanking. Over a toast he confided to a Japanese diplomat: "My men have done something very wrong and extremely regrettable." [ 57 ] Selama bersulang dia mengaku kepada seorang diplomat Jepang: "Anak buahku telah melakukan sesuatu yang sangat keliru dan sangat disesalkan." [57]
[ edit ] End of the massacre [Sunting] Akhir dari pembantaian

In late January 1938, the Japanese army forced all refugees in the Safety Zone to return home, immediately claiming to have "restored order". Pada akhir Januari 1938, tentara Jepang memaksa semua pengungsi di Zona Keamanan untuk pulang, segera mengklaim telah "memulihkan ketertiban".

After the establishment of the “weixin zhengfu” (the collaborating government) in 1938, order was gradually restored in Nanking and atrocities by Japanese troops lessened considerably. Setelah pembentukan "weixin zhengfu" (yang kerjasama pemerintah) pada tahun 1938, agar secara berangsur-angsur dipulihkan di Nanking dan kekejaman oleh pasukan Jepang cukup banyak berkurang.

On February 18 1938, the Nanking Safety Zone International Committee was forcibly renamed " Nanking International Rescue Committee ", and the Safety Zone effectively ceased to function. Pada tanggal 18 Februari 1938, Safety Zone Nanking Komite Internasional dipaksa berganti nama menjadi "Nanking International Rescue Committee", dan Zona Keselamatan berhenti berfungsi secara efektif. The last refugee camps were closed in May 1938. Kamp-kamp pengungsi yang terakhir itu ditutup pada Mei 1938.
[ edit ] Recall of Matsui and Asaka [Sunting] Recall dari Matsui dan Asaka

In February 1938 both Prince Asaka and General Matsui were recalled to Japan. Pada bulan Februari 1938 kedua Pangeran Asaka dan Jenderal Matsui yang ditarik kembali ke Jepang. Matsui returned to retirement, but Prince Asaka remained on the Supreme War Council until the end of the war in August 1945. Matsui kembali ke masa pensiun, tetapi Pangeran Asaka tetap pada Perang Tertinggi Dewan sampai akhir perang pada Agustus 1945. He was promoted to the rank of general in August 1939, though he held no further military commands. [ 22 ] Ia dipromosikan ke pangkat umum pada Agustus 1939, meskipun ia tidak lagi memegang perintah militer. [22]
[ edit ] Death toll estimates [Sunting] Kematian perkiraan tol

Estimates of the number of victims varies based on the definitions of the geographical range and the duration of the event. Perkiraan jumlah korban bervariasi berdasarkan definisi dari jangkauan geografis dan durasi dari event.

According to the International Military Tribunal for the Far East , estimates made at a later date indicate that the total number of civilians and prisoners of war murdered in Nanking and its vicinity during the first six weeks of the Japanese occupation was over 200,000. Menurut Pengadilan Militer Internasional untuk Timur Jauh, perkiraan yang dibuat di kemudian hari menunjukkan bahwa jumlah penduduk sipil dan tawanan perang dibunuh di Nanking dan sekitarnya selama enam minggu pertama pendudukan Jepang lebih dari 200.000. These estimates are borne out by the figures of burial societies and other organizations, which testify to over 155,000 buried bodies. Perkiraan ini ditanggung oleh masyarakat penguburan tokoh-tokoh dan organisasi-organisasi lain, yang bersaksi kepada lebih dari 155.000 mengubur mayat. These figures do not take into account those persons whose bodies were destroyed by burning, drowning, or other means. [ 58 ] Angka-angka ini tidak memperhitungkan orang-orang yang tubuhnya hancur oleh terbakar, tenggelam, atau cara lainnya. [58]

According to the verdict of the Nanjing War Crimes Tribunal on 10 March 1947, there are "more than 190,000 mass slaughtered civilians and Chinese soldiers killed by machine gun by the Japanese army, whose corpses have been burned to destroy proof. Besides, we count more than 150,000 victims of barbarian acts buried by the charity organizations. We thus have a total of more than 300,000 victims." [ 59 ] Menurut putusan Pengadilan Kejahatan Perang Nanjing pada tanggal 10 Maret 1947, ada "lebih dari 190.000 warga sipil dibantai massa dan tentara Cina tewas oleh senapan mesin oleh tentara Jepang, mayat-mayat yang sudah terbakar untuk menghancurkan bukti. Selain itu, kita menghitung lebih dari 150.000 korban tindakan barbar terkubur oleh organisasi amal. Dengan demikian kita memiliki total lebih dari 300.000 korban. "[59]

The extent of the atrocities is debated, with numbers [ 60 ] ranging from some Japanese claims of several hundred, [ 61 ] to the Chinese claim of a non-combatant death toll of 300,000. [ 62 ] A number of Japanese researchers consider 100,000–200,000 to be an accurate estimate. [ 63 ] Sejauh mana kekejaman ini diperdebatkan, dengan angka [60] jepang mulai dari beberapa klaim dari beberapa ratus, [61] dengan klaim Cina non-kombatan korban tewas sebanyak 300.000. [62] Sejumlah peneliti Jepang mempertimbangkan 100.000 -- 200.000 sampai menjadi perkiraan yang akurat. [63]

Other nations believe the death toll to be between 150,000–300,000, based on the Nanjing War Crimes Tribunal verdict, and another estimate of the civilian toll (excluding soldiers and POWs) is about 40,000-60,000, which corresponds to the figures from three sources; one is the Red Army's official journal of the time, Hangdibao and another is that of Miner Searle Bates of the International Safety Zone Committee, and the third is the aforementioned figure written by John Rabe in a letter. [ 64 ] The casualty count of 300,000 was first promulgated in January 1938 by Harold Timperley , a journalist in China during the Japanese invasion, based on reports from contemporary eyewitnesses. [ citation needed ] Other sources, including Iris Chang 's The Rape of Nanking , also conclude that the death toll reached 300,000. Negara-negara lain percaya bahwa jumlah korban tewas menjadi antara 150.000-300.000 berdasar pada Pengadilan Kejahatan Perang Nanjing vonis, dan estimasi lainnya tol sipil (termasuk tentara dan POW) adalah sekitar 40,000-60,000, yang sesuai dengan angka-angka dari tiga sumber; satu adalah Tentara Merah jurnal resmi waktu, Hangdibao dan yang lainnya adalah bahwa dari Miner Searle Bates dari International Safety Zone Komite, dan yang ketiga adalah tokoh tersebut ditulis oleh John Rabe dalam sebuah surat. [64] Para korban menghitung sebanyak 300.000 pertama kali diumumkan pada bulan Januari 1938 oleh Harold Timperley, seorang jurnalis di Cina saat invasi Jepang, berdasarkan laporan dari para saksi mata kontemporer. [sunting] Sumber-sumber lain, termasuk Iris Chang 's The Rape of Nanking, juga menyimpulkan bahwa jumlah korban tewas mencapai 300.000. In December 2007, newly declassified US government documents revealed an additional toll of around 500,000 in the area surrounding Nanking before it was occupied. [ 65 ] Pada Desember 2007, baru declassified pemerintah AS mengungkapkan dokumen tol tambahan sekitar 500.000 di wilayah sekitar Nanking sebelum diduduki. [65]
[ edit ] Range and duration [Sunting] Range dan durasi

The most conservative viewpoint is that the geographical area of the incident should be limited to the few km 2 of the city known as the Safety Zone, where the civilians gathered after the invasion. Sudut pandang yang paling konservatif adalah bahwa daerah geografis insiden harus dibatasi ke beberapa km 2 dari kota yang dikenal sebagai Zona Keselamatan, di mana warga sipil berkumpul setelah invasi. Many Japanese historians seized upon the fact that during the Japanese invasion there were only 200,000–250,000 citizens in Nanking as reported by John Rabe, to argue that the PRC's estimate of 300,000 deaths is a vast exaggeration. Banyak sejarawan Jepang ditangkap kenyataan bahwa selama invasi Jepang hanya ada di Nanking 200,000-250,000 warga negara seperti yang dilaporkan oleh John Rabe, untuk menyatakan bahwa perkiraan RRC sebanyak 300.000 kematian adalah berlebihan yang luas.

However, many historians include a much larger area around the city. Namun, banyak sejarawan mencakup wilayah yang jauh lebih besar di sekitar kota. Including the Xiaguan district (the suburbs north of Nanking, about 31 km 2 in size) and other areas on the outskirts of the city, the population of greater Nanking was running between 535,000 and 635,000 civilians and soldiers just prior to the Japanese occupation. [ 66 ] Some historians also include six counties around Nanking, known as the Nanking Special Municipality. Xiaguan termasuk distrik (di pinggiran kota utara Nanking, sekitar 31 km 2 dalam ukuran) dan daerah-daerah lain di pinggiran kota, populasi Nanking yang lebih besar berlari antara 535.000 dan 635.000 warga sipil dan tentara sesaat sebelum pendudukan Jepang. [ 66] Beberapa sejarawan juga meliputi enam kabupaten di sekitar Nanking, yang dikenal sebagai Kota Khusus Nanking.

The duration of the incident is naturally defined by its geography: the earlier the Japanese entered the area, the longer the duration. Lamanya peristiwa secara alami ditentukan oleh geografi: semakin dini memasuki wilayah Jepang, semakin lama durasi. The Battle of Nanking ended on December 13, when the divisions of the Japanese Army entered the walled city of Nanking. Para Pertempuran Nanking berakhir pada 13 Desember, ketika divisi dari tentara Jepang memasuki kota bertembok Nanking. The Tokyo War Crime Tribunal defined the period of the massacre to the ensuing six weeks. Kejahatan Perang Tokyo Tribunal didefinisikan periode berikutnya pembantaian enam minggu. More conservative estimates say the massacre started on December 14, when the troops entered the Safety Zone, and that it lasted for six weeks. Perkiraan yang lebih konservatif mengatakan pembantaian dimulai pada 14 Desember, ketika pasukan memasuki Zona Keselamatan, dan itu berlangsung selama enam minggu. Historians who define the Nanking Massacre as having started from the time the Japanese Army entered Jiangsu province push the beginning of the massacre to around mid-November to early December (Suzhou fell on November 19), and stretch the end of the massacre to late March 1938. Sejarawan yang mendefinisikan Pembantaian Nanking memiliki mulai dari waktu tentara Jepang masuk Jiangsu provinsi mendorong awal pembantaian sekitar pertengahan November hingga awal Desember (Suzhou jatuh pada 19 November), dan regangkan akhir pembantaian hingga akhir Maret 1938.
[ edit ] Various estimates [Sunting] Berbagai perkiraan

Japanese historians, depending on their definition of the geographical and time duration of the killings, give wide-ranging estimates for the number of massacred civilians, from several thousand to upwards of 200,000. [ 67 ] Jepang sejarawan, tergantung pada definisi mereka geografis dan durasi waktu pembunuhan, memberikan perkiraan luas untuk jumlah membantai warga sipil, dari beberapa ribu sampai ke atas dari 200.000. [67]

Chinese language sources tend to place the figure of massacred civilians upwards of 200,000. [ 67 ] For example, a postwar investigation by the Nanking District Court put the number of dead during the incident as 295,525, 76% of them men, 22% women and 2% children. Sumber-sumber bahasa Cina cenderung untuk menempatkan sosok membantai warga sipil ke atas dari 200.000. [67] Sebagai contoh, sebuah penyelidikan pasca perang oleh Pengadilan Nanking meletakkan jumlah korban meninggal dalam insiden seperti 295.525, 76% dari mereka laki-laki, 22% perempuan dan 2% anak-anak.

A 42-part ROC documentary produced from 1995 to 1997, entitled An Inch of Blood For An Inch of Land [ 68 ] (一寸河山一寸血), asserts that 340,000 Chinese civilians died in Nanking City as a result of the Japanese invasion, 150,000 through bombing and crossfire in the five-day battle, and 190,000 in the massacre, based on the evidence presented at the Tokyo Trials. A 42-bagian ROC dokumenter yang diproduksi 1995-1997, berjudul An Inch Darah Bagi An Inch Lahan [68] (一寸河山一寸血), menegaskan bahwa Cina 340.000 warga sipil tewas di Nanking City sebagai akibat dari invasi Jepang, 150.000 melalui pengeboman dan baku tembak dalam lima hari pertempuran, dan 190.000 dalam pembantaian, berdasarkan bukti-bukti yang disajikan di Tokyo Ujian.
[ edit ] War crimes tribunals [Sunting] Perang pengadilan kejahatan
The International Military Tribunal for the Far East was convened at “Ichigaya Court,” formally Imperial Japanese Army HQ building in Ichigaya , Tokyo . Di Pengadilan Militer Internasional untuk Timur Jauh diselenggarakan di "Ichigaya Pengadilan," secara resmi markas besar Angkatan Darat Kekaisaran Jepang bangunan di Ichigaya, Tokyo.

Shortly after the surrender of Japan, the primary officers in charge of the Japanese troops at Nanking were put on trial. Tak lama setelah Jepang menyerah, perwira utama yang bertanggung jawab atas pasukan Jepang di Nanking yang diadili. General Matsui was indicted before the International Military Tribunal for the Far East for "deliberately and recklessly" ignoring his legal duty "to take adequate steps to secure the observance and prevent breaches" of the Hague Convention . Hisao Tani , the lieutenant general of the 6th Division of the Japanese army in Nanking, was tried by the Nanjing War Crimes Tribunal . Jenderal Matsui didakwa sebelum Pengadilan Militer Internasional untuk Timur Jauh untuk "sengaja dan sembrono" mengabaikan kewajiban hukum "untuk mengambil langkah-langkah yang memadai untuk mengamankan ketaatan dan mencegah pelanggaran" dari Konvensi Den Haag. Hisao Tani, letnan jenderal-6 Divisi tentara Jepang di Nanking, diadili oleh Pengadilan Kejahatan Perang Nanjing.

Other Japanese military leaders in charge at the time of the Nanking Massacre were not tried. Prince Kan'in , chief of staff of the Japanese Army during the massacre, had died before the end of the war in May 1945. Lain pemimpin militer Jepang yang bertanggung jawab pada saat dari Pembantaian Nanking tidak mencoba. Pangeran Kan'in, kepala staf tentara Jepang selama pembantaian, telah meninggal sebelum berakhirnya perang pada Mei 1945. Prince Asaka was granted immunity because of his status as a member of the imperial family. [ 69 ] Isamu Cho , the aide of Prince Asaka, and who some historians believe issued the "kill all captives" memo, had committed suicide during the defense of Okinawa. [ 70 ] Pangeran Asaka diberi kekebalan karena statusnya sebagai anggota keluarga kerajaan. [69] Isamu Cho, si ajudan Pangeran Asaka, dan yang beberapa sejarawan percaya mengeluarkan "membunuh semua tawanan" memo, telah melakukan bunuh diri selama membela Okinawa. [70]

General Matsui Iwane [ 71 ] Jenderal Matsui Iwane [71]


General Hisao Tani [ 72 ] Umum Hisao Tani [72]
[ edit ] Grant of immunity to Prince Asaka [Sunting] Grant kekebalan kepada Pangeran Asaka

On May 1, 1946, SCAP officials interrogated Prince Asaka , who was the ranking officer in the city at the height of the atrocities, about his involvement in the Nanking Massacre and the deposition was submitted to the International Prosecution Section of the Tokyo tribunal. Pada tanggal 1 Mei 1946, SCAP diinterogasi pejabat Pangeran Asaka, yang merupakan perwira di kota pada puncak kekejaman, tentang keterlibatannya dalam Pembantaian Nanking dan endapan telah disampaikan kepada Seksi Penuntutan Internasional Tokyo pengadilan. Asaka denied the existence of any massacre and claimed never to have received complaints about the conduct of his troops. [ 73 ] Whatever his culpability may have been, Asaka was not prosecuted before the International Military Tribunal for the Far East at least in part because under the pact concluded between General MacArthur and Hirohito , the Emperor himself and all the members of the imperial family were granted immunity from prosecution. Asaka menolak keberadaan setiap pembantaian dan mengaku tidak pernah menerima pengaduan mengenai pelaksanaan pasukannya. [73] Apa pun kesalahan mungkin telah, Asaka tidak dituntut sebelum Pengadilan Militer Internasional untuk Timur Jauh setidaknya sebagian karena di bawah menyimpulkan perjanjian antara Jenderal MacArthur dan Hirohito, Kaisar sendiri dan semua anggota keluarga kerajaan diberi kekebalan dari tuntutan.
[ edit ] Evidence and testimony [Sunting] Bukti dan kesaksian
Harold John Timperley 's telegram of 17 January 1938 describing the atrocities. Harold John Timperley 's telegram dari 17 Januari 1938 menggambarkan kekejaman.

The prosecution began the Nanking phase of its case in July 1946. Penuntutan memulai fase Nanking kasusnya pada Juli 1946. Dr. Robert Wilson , a surgeon and a member of the International Committee for the Nanking Safety Zone, took the witness stand first. Dr Robert Wilson, seorang ahli bedah dan anggota Komite Internasional untuk Nanking Safety Zone, mengambil saksi pertama.

Other members of the International Committee for the Nanking Safety Zone who took the witness stand included Miner Searle Bates and John Magee . George A. Fitch , Lewis Smythe and James McCallum filed affidavits with their diaries and letters. Anggota lain dari Komite Internasional untuk Nanking Safety Zone yang mengambil saksi termasuk Miner Searle Bates dan John Magee. George A. Fitch, Lewis Smythe dan James McCallum diajukan affidavit dengan buku harian dan surat-surat.

Another piece of evidence that was submitted to the tribunal was Harold Timperley's telegram regarding the Nanking Massacre which had been intercepted and decoded by the Americans on January 17, 1938. Bukti lain yang diajukan ke pengadilan adalah Harold Timperley's telegram mengenai Pembantaian Nanking yang telah dicegat dan diterjemahkan oleh Amerika pada 17 Januari 1938.

One of the books by Hsü, Documents of the Nanking Safety Zone, was also adduced in court. Salah satu buku yang oleh Hsu, Dokumen dari Nanking Safety Zone, juga dikemukakan di pengadilan.

According to Matsui's own diary, one day after he made the ceremonial triumphal entry into the city on December 17, 1937, he instructed the chiefs of staff from each division to tighten military discipline and try to eradicate the sense of disdain for Chinese people among their soldiers. Menurut Matsui buku harian sendiri, satu hari setelah ia membuat kemenangan upacara masuk ke dalam kota pada tanggal 17 Desember 1937, ia memerintahkan para kepala staf dari masing-masing divisi untuk mengencangkan disiplin militer dan berusaha untuk menghapuskan rasa jijik bagi orang-orang Cina di antara mereka prajurit.

On February 7, 1938, Matsui delivered a speech at a memorial service for the Japanese officers and men of the Shanghai Expeditionary Force who were killed in action. Pada tanggal 7 Februari 1938, Matsui menyampaikan pidato pada upacara peringatan untuk perwira Jepang dan laki-laki dari Shanghai Expeditionary Force, yang dibunuh dalam tindakan. In front of the high-ranking officers, Domei News Agency reported, he emphasized the necessity to "put an end to various reports affecting the prestige of the Japanese troops." Di depan perwira-perwira tinggi, Domei News Agency melaporkan, ia menekankan perlunya untuk "mengakhiri berbagai laporan yang mempengaruhi prestise pasukan Jepang."

The entry for the same day in Matsui's diary read, "I could only feel sadness and responsibility today, which has been overwhelmingly piercing my heart. This is caused by the Army's misbehaviors after the fall of Nanking and failure to proceed with the autonomous government and other political plans." Entri untuk hari yang sama di buku harian Matsui membaca, "Aku hanya bisa merasakan kesedihan dan tanggung jawab hari ini, yang telah sangat banyak menusuk hati saya. Hal ini disebabkan oleh Angkatan Darat misbehaviors setelah jatuhnya Nanking dan kegagalan untuk melanjutkan dengan pemerintah otonom dan rencana politik lainnya. "
[ edit ] Matsui's defense [Sunting] Matsui pertahanan

Matsui's defence varied between denying the mass-scale atrocities and evading his responsibility for what had happened. Pertahanan Matsui bervariasi antara menyangkal skala massal kekejaman dan menghindari tanggung jawabnya atas apa yang telah terjadi. Eventually he ended up making numerous conflicting statements. Akhirnya ia akhirnya membuat banyak pernyataan yang saling bertentangan.

In the interrogation in Sugamo prison preceding the trial Matsui admitted that he heard about the many outrages committed by his troops from Japanese diplomats when he entered Nanking on December 17, 1937. Dalam interogasi di penjara Sugamo Matsui sidang sebelumnya mengakui bahwa ia mendengar tentang kemarahan banyak dilakukan oleh pasukannya dari diplomat Jepang ketika ia memasuki Nanking pada 17 Desember 1937.

In court, he contradicted the earlier testimony and told the judges that he was not "officially" briefed at the consulate about the evildoings, presumably to avoid admitting any contact with the consulate officials such as Second Secretary (later Acting Consul-General) Fukui Kiyoshi and Attaché Fukuda Tokuyasu who received and dealt with the protests filed by the International Committee. Di pengadilan, ia bertentangan dengan kesaksian sebelumnya dan mengatakan kepada hakim bahwa ia tidak "resmi" diberi penjelasan di konsulat tentang evildoings, mungkin untuk menghindari mengakui ada kontak dengan para pejabat konsulat seperti Second Secretary (kemudian Pejabat Konsul Jenderal) Fukui Kiyoshi dan Atase Fukuda Tokuyasu yang menerima dan berurusan dengan protes yang diajukan oleh Komite Internasional.

In the same interrogation session before the trial Matsui said one officer and three low-ranking soldiers were court-martialed because of their misbehavior in Nanking and the officer was sentenced to death. Dalam sesi interogasi yang sama sebelum sidang Matsui kata salah seorang perwira dan tiga prajurit berpangkat rendah adalah mahkamah militer karena kenakalan mereka di Nanking dan perwira dijatuhi hukuman mati.

In his affidavit Matsui said he ordered his officers to investigate the massacre and to take necessary action. Dalam pernyataan tertulis Matsui mengatakan ia memerintahkan petugas untuk menyelidiki pembantaian dan untuk mengambil tindakan yang diperlukan. In court, however, Matsui said that he did not have jurisdiction over the soldiers' misconduct since he was not in the position of supervising military discipline and morals. Di pengadilan Namun, Matsui mengatakan bahwa ia tidak mempunyai yurisdiksi atas para prajurit 'kesalahan karena ia tidak dalam posisi mengawasi disiplin militer dan moral.

Matsui asserted that he had never ordered the execution of Chinese POWs . Matsui menegaskan bahwa dia tidak pernah memerintahkan eksekusi Cina POW. He further argued that he had directed his army division commanders to discipline their troops for criminal acts, and was not responsible for their failure to carry out his directives. Dia lebih jauh berpendapat bahwa ia telah mengarahkan pasukannya untuk mendisiplinkan komandan divisi pasukan mereka untuk tindakan-tindakan kriminal, dan tidak bertanggung jawab atas kegagalan mereka untuk melaksanakan arahan. At trial, Matsui went out of his way to protect Prince Asaka by shifting blame to lower ranking division commanders. [ 74 ] Di persidangan, Matsui pergi keluar dari cara untuk melindungi Pangeran Asaka dengan mengalihkan kesalahan kepada komandan divisi peringkat yang lebih rendah. [74]
[ edit ] Verdict [Sunting] Putusan

In the end the Tribunal connected only two defendants to the Rape of Nanking. Pada akhirnya Majelis terhubung hanya dua terdakwa ke Rape of Nanking.

Matsui was convicted of count 55, which charged him with being one of the senior officers who "deliberately and recklessly disregarded their legal duty [by virtue of their respective offices] to take adequate steps to secure the observance [of the Laws and Customs of War] and prevent breaches thereof, and thereby violated the laws of war." Matsui dihukum karena hitungan 55, yang menuduhnya sebagai salah satu perwira senior yang "dengan sengaja dan secara sembrono mengabaikan kewajiban hukum mereka [berdasarkan masing-masing kantor] untuk mengambil langkah-langkah yang memadai untuk menjamin ketaatan [dari Hukum dan Bea Cukai of War ] dan mencegah pelanggaran daripadanya, dan dengan demikian melanggar hukum perang. "

Hirota Koki, who had been the Foreign Minister when Japan conquered Nanking, was convicted of participating in "the formulation or execution of a common plan or conspiracy" (count 1), waging "a war of aggression and a war in violation of international laws, treaties, agreements and assurances against the Republic of China" (count 27) and count 55. Hirota Koki, yang pernah menjadi Menteri Luar Negeri ketika Jepang menaklukkan Nanking, dinyatakan bersalah berpartisipasi dalam perumusan atau pelaksanaan suatu perencanaan atau konspirasi "(count 1), melancarkan" perang agresi dan perang dalam pelanggaran hukum internasional , perjanjian, kesepakatan dan jaminan terhadap Republik Cina "(count 27) dan menghitung 55.

Matsui was convicted by a majority of the judges at the Tokyo tribunal who ruled that he bore ultimate responsibility for the "orgy of crime" at Nanking because, "He did nothing, or nothing effective, to abate these horrors." Matsui divonis bersalah oleh mayoritas dari para hakim di Tokyo pengadilan yang memutuskan bahwa ia membawa tanggung jawab utama untuk "pesta kejahatan" di Nanking karena, "Dia tidak melakukan apa pun, atau tidak efektif, untuk mereda kengerian ini."

Organized and wholesale murder of male civilians was conducted with the apparent sanction of the commanders on the pretext that Chinese soldiers had removed their uniforms and were mingling with the population. Terorganisir dan pembunuhan besar-besaran warga sipil laki-laki dilakukan dengan sanksi yang jelas dari komandan dengan alasan bahwa tentara Cina telah menanggalkan seragam mereka dan berbaur dengan penduduk. Groups of Chinese civilians were formed, bound with their hands behind their backs, and marched outside the walls of the city where they were killed in groups by machine gun fire and with bayonets. Kelompok warga sipil Cina dibentuk, terikat dengan tangan di belakang punggung mereka, dan berbaris di luar tembok kota di mana mereka dibunuh dalam kelompok dengan senapan mesin api dan dengan bayonet. --- From Judgment of the International Military Tribunal --- Dari Pengadilan dari Pengadilan Militer Internasional

Radhabinod Pal , the member of the tribunal from India, dissented from the conviction arguing that the commander-in-chief must rely on his subordinate officers to enforce soldier discipline. Radhabinod Pal, anggota majelis dari India, sependapat dari keyakinan berargumen bahwa komandan-in-chief harus bergantung pada perwira bawahannya untuk menegakkan disiplin prajurit. "The name of Justice," Pal wrote in his dissent, "should not be allowed to be invoked only for ... vindictive retaliation." "Nama Kehakiman," Pal menulis dalam perbedaan pendapat, "seharusnya tidak boleh dipanggil hanya untuk pembalasan dendam ...."
[ edit ] Sentence [Sunting] Kalimat

On November 12, 1948, on the basis of a simple majority of the eleven judges, Matsui and Hirota, with five other convicted Class-A war criminals, were sentenced to death by hanging. Pada 12 November 1948, atas dasar mayoritas sederhana dari sebelas hakim, Matsui dan Hirota, dengan lima lainnya dinyatakan bersalah Kelas-A penjahat perang, dijatuhi hukuman mati dengan digantung. Eighteen others received lesser sentences. Delapan belas orang lain menerima hukuman yang lebih rendah. The death sentence imposed on Hirota, who was apparently sent to the gallows on the basis of a bare six votes, shocked the general public and prompted a petition on his behalf, which soon gathered over 300,000 signatures, but to no avail. [ citation needed ] Hukuman mati dikenakan pada Hirota, yang tampaknya dikirim ke tiang gantungan atas dasar enam suara yang telanjang, kaget dan masyarakat umum diminta petisi atas namanya, yang segera mengumpulkan lebih dari 300.000 tanda tangan, tetapi tidak berhasil. [Rujukan? ]

Generals Hisao Tani and Rensuke Isogai were sentenced to death by the Nanking War Crimes Tribunal. [ 74 ] Jenderal Hisao Tani dan Rensuke Isogai dijatuhi hukuman mati oleh Pengadilan Kejahatan Perang Nanking. [74]
[ edit ] Memorials [Sunting] kenangan
[ edit ] Nanking Massacre Memorial Hall [Sunting] Nanking Massacre Memorial Hall

In 1985, a memorial hall was built by the Nanking Municipal Government in remembrance of the victims and to raise awareness of the Nanking Massacre. Pada tahun 1985, sebuah aula peringatan dibangun oleh Pemerintah Kotamadya Nanking untuk mengenang para korban dan untuk meningkatkan kesadaran dari Pembantaian Nanking. It is located near a site where thousands of bodies were buried, called a "pit of ten thousand corpses," or "wan ren keng." Ini terletak di dekat sebuah situs di mana ribuan mayat yang dikuburkan, disebut sebagai "lubang sepuluh ribu mayat," atau "wan ren keng."
Nj06.jpg

Sekihi02.jpg

NanjingMassacre Yanziji stone.jpg
Pembantaian Nanjing relief1.jpg rendah

Pembantaian Nanjing relief2.jpg rendah
[ edit ] Photograph exhibit [Sunting] Foto pameran

In 1995, Daniel Kwan held a photograph exhibit in Los Angeles titled, "The Forgotten Holocaust". Pada 1995, Daniel Kwan mengadakan pameran foto di Los Angeles berjudul, "The Forgotten Holocaust".
[ edit ] John Rabe House [Sunting] John Rabe House
John Rabe's former residence in Nanking , July 2008 John Rabe bekas kediaman di Nanking, Juli 2008

In 2005, John Rabe's former residence in Nanking was renovated and now accommodates the " "John Rabe and International Safety Zone Memorial Hall ", which opened in 2006. Pada tahun 2005, John Rabe bekas kediaman di Nanking direnovasi dan sekarang menampung "" John Rabe dan Zona Keamanan Internasional Memorial Hall ", yang dibuka pada tahun 2006.
[ edit ] Controversy [Sunting] Kontroversi
Main article: Nanking Massacre controversy Artikel utama: Pembantaian Nanking kontroversi
Further information: Historiography of the Nanking Massacre Informasi lebih lanjut: Historiografi dari Pembantaian Nanking

China and Japan have both acknowledged the occurrence of wartime atrocities. Cina dan Jepang memiliki keduanya mengakui terjadinya kekejaman masa perang. Disputes over the historical portrayal of these events continue to cause tensions between Japan on one side and China and other East Asian countries on the other side. Perselisihan penggambaran historis kejadian-kejadian ini terus menimbulkan ketegangan antara Jepang di satu sisi dan Cina dan negara-negara Asia Timur lainnya di sisi lain.
[ edit ] Cold War [Sunting] Perang Dingin

Before the 1970s, China did relatively little to draw attention to the Nanking massacre. Sebelum tahun 1970-an, Cina memang relatif sedikit untuk menarik perhatian pada pembantaian Nanking. In her book Rape of Nanking Iris Chang asserted that the politics of the Cold War encouraged Mao to stay relatively silent about Nanking in order to keep a trade relationship with Japan. Dalam bukunya Rape of Nanking Iris Chang menegaskan bahwa politik Perang Dingin Mao didorong untuk tetap relatif diam tentang Nanking untuk menjaga hubungan dagang dengan Jepang. In turn, China and the United States occasionally used Nanking as an opportunity to demonize one another. Pada gilirannya, Cina dan Amerika Serikat Nanking kadang-kadang digunakan sebagai kesempatan untuk demonize satu sama lain.


see TfD For example, during the Korean War , the Communist Chinese used records of the International Committee members in an attempt to arouse patriotism against the United States. lihat TFD Sebagai contoh, selama Perang Korea, Cina Komunis digunakan catatan anggota Komite Internasional dalam upaya untuk membangkitkan patriotisme melawan Amerika Serikat. In the propaganda campaign, many Christian missionaries were stigmatized as Americans who sacrificed Chinese people's lives to protect mission property, who guided the Imperial Army of Japan into the city and who cooperated with the Japanese troops to round up prisoners of war in the refugee camps. [ citation needed ] Dalam kampanye propaganda, banyak misionaris Kristen dicap sebagai orang Amerika yang mengorbankan kehidupan orang-orang Cina untuk melindungi properti misi, yang dipandu Tentara Kekaisaran Jepang menjadi kota dan yang bekerja sama dengan pasukan Jepang untuk mengumpulkan tawanan perang di kamp-kamp pengungsi. [rujukan?]


see TfD The Americans preferred not to make the citizens of a Communist country sympathetic and were also committed to the inclusion of the Japanese Emperor and his family in a reconstructed and now pro-western Japan. [ citation needed ] lihat TFD Orang-orang Amerika lebih suka untuk tidak membuat warga negara Komunis simpatik dan juga berkomitmen untuk masuknya Kaisar Jepang dan keluarganya di sebuah direkonstruksi dan sekarang pro-barat Jepang. [rujukan?]
[ edit ] Debate in Japan [Sunting] Perdebatan di Jepang

The major waves of Japanese treatment of these events have ranged from total cover-up during the war, confessions and documentation by the Japanese soldiers during the 1950s and 1960s, minimization of the extent of the Nanking Massacre during the 1970s and 1980s, official Japanese government distortion and rewriting of history during the 1980s, and total denial of the occurrence of the Nanking Massacre by some government officials in 1990. [ 75 ] Gelombang utama pengobatan Jepang peristiwa ini telah berkisar dari total ditutup-tutupi selama perang, pengakuan dan dokumentasi oleh tentara Jepang selama tahun 1950-an dan 1960-an, minimisasi dari sejauh mana Pembantaian Nanking pada tahun 1970-an dan 1980-an, pemerintah Jepang resmi distorsi dan menulis ulang sejarah selama 1980-an, dan total penolakan terjadinya Pembantaian Nanking oleh beberapa pejabat pemerintah pada tahun 1990. [75]


see TfD Interest in the Nanking Massacre waned into near obscurity until 1972, the year China and Japan normalized diplomatic relationships. [ citation needed ] lihat TFD Minat dalam Pembantaian Nanking berkurang menjadi dekat ketidakjelasan sampai tahun 1972, tahun Cina dan Jepang hubungan diplomatik normal. [rujukan?]

The debate concerning the massacre took place mainly in the 1970s. Perdebatan mengenai pembantaian terjadi terutama pada tahun 1970an. During this time, the Chinese government's statements about the event were attacked by the Japanese because they were said to rely too heavily on personal testimonies and anecdotal evidence. Selama waktu ini, pemerintah Cina pernyataan tentang peristiwa itu diserang oleh Jepang karena mereka berkata terlalu banyak mengandalkan pada kesaksian pribadi dan bukti anekdotal. Aspersions were cast regarding the authenticity and accuracy of burial records and photographs presented in the Tokyo War Crime Court, which were said to be fabrications by the Chinese government, artificially manipulated or incorrectly attributed to the Nanking Massacre. [ 76 ] Aspersions dilemparkan mengenai keaslian dan keakuratan catatan dan foto-foto penguburan disajikan di Pengadilan Kejahatan Perang Tokyo, yang dikatakan rekayasa oleh pemerintah Cina, buatan dimanipulasi atau salah dikaitkan dengan Pembantaian Nanking. [76]

During the 1970s, Katsuichi Honda wrote a series of articles for the Asahi Shimbun on war crimes committed by Japanese soldiers during World War II (such as the Nanking Massacre). [ 77 ] The publication of these articles triggered a vehement response from Japanese right-wingers regarding the Japanese treatment of the war crimes. Selama tahun 1970-an, Katsuichi Honda menulis serangkaian artikel untuk Asahi Shimbun pada kejahatan perang yang dilakukan oleh tentara Jepang selama Perang Dunia II (seperti Pembantaian Nanking). [77] Penerbitan artikel-artikel ini memicu tanggapan keras dari kanan-jepang sayap mengenai perlakuan Jepang kejahatan perang. In response, Shichihei Yamamoto [ 78 ] and Akira Suzuki [ 79 ] wrote two controversial yet influential articles which sparked the negationist movement. Sebagai tanggapan, Shichihei Yamamoto [78] dan Akira Suzuki [79] menulis dua artikel kontroversial yang belum berpengaruh memicu gerakan meniadakan.
[ edit ] Apology and condolences by the prime minister and emperor of Japan [Sunting] Permintaan maaf dan belasungkawa oleh perdana menteri dan kaisar Jepang

On August 15, 1995, the fiftieth anniversary of the Surrender of Japan , the Japanese prime minister Tomiichi Murayama gave the first clear and informal apology for Japanese actions during the war. Pada tanggal 15 Agustus 1995, ulang tahun kelimapuluh Menyerah dari Jepang, Perdana Menteri Jepang Tomiichi Murayama memberikan informal pertama yang jelas dan permintaan maaf atas tindakan Jepang selama perang. He apologized for Japan's wrongful aggression and the great suffering that it inflicted in Asia. He offered his heartfelt apology to all survivors and to the relatives and friends of the victims. Ia menawarkan tulus permintaan maaf kepada semua korban dan kepada keluarga dan teman dari para korban. That day, the prime minister and the Japanese Emperor Akihito pronounced statements of mourning at Tokyo's Nippon Budokan . Hari itu, perdana menteri dan Kaisar Jepang Akihito menyatakan pernyataan berkabung di Tokyo's Nippon Budokan. The emperor offered his condolences and expressed the hope that such atrocities would never be repeated. Iris Chang , author of The Rape of Nanking , criticized Murayama for not providing the written apology that had been expected. Kaisar menawarkan belasungkawa dan menyatakan harapan bahwa kekejaman seperti itu tidak akan pernah dapat diulang. Iris Chang, penulis buku The Rape of Nanking, Murayama dikritik karena tidak memberikan permintaan maaf tertulis yang telah diharapkan. She said that the people of China "don't believe that an... unequivocal and sincere apology has ever been made by Japan to China" and that a written apology from Japan would send a better message to the international community. [ 6 ] Dia berkata bahwa orang-orang Cina "tidak percaya bahwa sebuah ... tegas dan tulus permintaan maaf yang pernah dibuat oleh Jepang ke Cina" dan itu tertulis permintaan maaf dari Jepang akan mengirim pesan yang lebih baik kepada masyarakat internasional. [6]
[ edit ] Denial of the massacre by the Liberal Democratic Party of Japan [Sunting] Penolakan dari pembantaian oleh Partai Demokrat Liberal Jepang

In 2007, a group of around 100 Liberal Democratic Party of Japan (LDP) lawmakers again denounced the Nanjing Massacre as a fabrication, arguing that there was no evidence to prove the allegations of mass killings by Japanese soldiers. Pada tahun 2007, sekelompok sekitar 100 Partai Liberal Demokrat Jepang (LDP) pembuat undang-undang lagi mencela Pembantaian Nanjing sebagai fabrikasi, dengan alasan bahwa tidak ada bukti untuk membuktikan tuduhan pembunuhan massal oleh tentara Jepang. They accused Beijing of using the alleged incident as a "political advertisement". [ 80 ] Mereka menuduh Beijing menggunakan insiden yang diduga sebagai "iklan politik". [80]
[ edit ] Legacy [Sunting] Warisan
[ edit ] Effect on international relations [Sunting] Efek pada hubungan internasional

The memory of the Nanking Massacre has been a stumbling block in Sino-Japanese relations since the early 1970s. Memori Pembantaian Nanking telah menjadi batu sandungan dalam hubungan Sino-Jepang sejak awal 1970-an. Bilateral exchanges on trade, culture and education have increased greatly since the two countries normalized their bilateral relations and Japan became China's most important trading partner. [ 81 ] . Pertukaran bilateral perdagangan, budaya dan pendidikan telah meningkat dengan cepat sejak kedua negara normalisasi hubungan bilateral mereka, dan Jepang di Cina menjadi mitra dagang paling penting. [81]. Trade between the two nations is worth over $200 billion annually. Perdagangan antara kedua negara bernilai lebih dari $ 200 miliar per tahun. Despite this, many Chinese people still have a strong sense of mistrust and animosity toward Japan that originates from the memory of Japanese war crimes such as the Nanking Massacre. Meskipun demikian, banyak orang Cina masih memiliki rasa yang kuat ketidakpercayaan dan permusuhan terhadap Jepang yang berasal dari memori kejahatan perang Jepang seperti Pembantaian Nanking. This sense of mistrust is strengthened by the notion that Japan is unwilling to admit to and apologize for the atrocities. [ 82 ] Rasa ketidakpercayaan ini diperkuat dengan adanya anggapan bahwa Jepang tidak mau mengakui dan meminta maaf atas kekejaman. [82]

Takashi Yoshida described how changing political concerns and perceptions of the "national interest" in Japan, China, and Western countries have shaped collective memory of the Nanking massacre. Takashi Yoshida menggambarkan bagaimana politik berubah keprihatinan dan persepsi dari "kepentingan nasional" di Jepang, Cina, dan negara-negara Barat telah membentuk ingatan kolektif dari pembantaian Nanking. Yoshida asserted that over time the event has acquired different meanings to different people. [ 83 ] Yoshida menegaskan bahwa seiring waktu kejadian telah memperoleh arti yang berbeda bagi orang yang berbeda. [83]

Many Japanese prime ministers have visited the Yasukuni Shrine, a shrine for dead Japanese soldiers of World War II , including some war criminals of the Nanking Massacre. In 2006 former Japanese prime minister Junichiro Koizumi made a pilgrimage to the shrine despite warnings from China and South Korea. His decision to visit the shrine regardless sparked international outrage. Although Koizumi denied that he was trying to glorify war or historical Japanese militarism, The Chinese Foreign Ministry accused Koizumi of "wrecking the political foundations of China-Japan relations". An official from South Korea said they would summon the Tokyo ambassador to protest. [ 84 ] [ 85 ] [ 86 ] [ 87 ]
[ edit ] As a component of national identity

Takashi Yoshida asserts that, "Nanking has figured in the attempts of all three nations [China, Japan and the United States] to preserve and redefine national and ethnic pride and identity, assuming different kinds of significance based on each country's changing internal and external enemies." [ 88 ]
[ edit ] Japan [Sunting] Jepang

See main article: Japanese history textbook controversies

In Japan, the Nanking Massacre touches upon national identity and notions of "pride, honor and shame." Yoshida argues that "Nanking crystallizes a much larger conflict over what should constitute the ideal perception of the nation: Japan, as a nation, acknowledges its past and apologizes for its wartime wrongdoings; or . . . stands firm against foreign pressures and teaches Japanese youth about the benevolent and courageous martyrs who fought a just war to save Asia from Western aggression." [ 88 ] Accepting the "orthodox" position can be viewed in some circles in Japan as "Japan bashing" (in the case of foreigners) or "self-flagellation" (in the case of Japanese).

The majority of Japanese acknowledge the atrocities committed during the Nanking Massacre. Some negationists and Japanese officials have openly denied the incident, claiming it propaganda designed to spark an anti-Japan movement.
[ edit ] China [Sunting] Cina

In China, the Communist Party has turned to history as a means of shoring up its legitimacy, especially since the 1989 Tiananmen Square protests. The Nanking Incident has emerged as a fundamental keystone in the construction of the modern Chinese national identity. [ 89 ] A refusal to accept the "orthodox" position on Nanking can be construed as an attempt to deny the Chinese nation a legitimate voice in international society.
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